2.5 Looking ahead: understanding economic change

Section 2 has looked at different ways of understanding the new economy, of understanding what is actually happening.

Question 1

Look back over the different understandings of the new economy. Is there really a new economy – jus
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7.3 Summary of Section 7

  • The historian Linda Colley locates the birth of ‘Britain’ after 1707. She mentions three main factors that contributed to establishing the British nation: war, religion and the prospect of material advantage.

  • The creation of the UK was not free from conflict, resistance, war and military intervention.

  • The British Empire generated a unique opportunity for most UK nations to participate and enjoy some of the benefits it brough
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5.2.2 Continuous variables

Not all numbers are discrete. Consider the following measurements:

  • times to run a marathon

  • temperatures recorded at intervals during a day

  • weight of each bunch of grapes sold at a supermarket yesterday.

Time, temperature and weight are all examples of numerical data, but there is not a restricted set of values that they can take. Whereas you can have 2 or 3 children in a family but not 2.5, with tempe
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5.5 Relationships in your organisation

In this section I have introduced you to case studies and reading that should have helped you understand how market orientation affects an organisation's performance. I have also asked you to look at your own organisation and make judgements regarding its performance. Near the beginning of this session I asked you to consider some questions from Drucker (1992). I have added a few more questions to his list and ask you now to try to answer these questions for your organisation. You probably do
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Activity 10: Critical reflections on Hofstede

Allow 60 minutes for this activity.

You have spent most of this unit working with Hofstede's ideas. He is one of the pioneers of the study of national culture and its impact on organisations, and his work has been very influential.

My aim so far has been to help you understand Hofstede's cultural dimensions and to become familiar with how they can be used to analyse one of the main environments within which organisations operate. National culture is also one of the factors
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3.3.1 Metaphors for organisational memory systems

Section 2 argued for a model of knowledge deriving from the situated interpretation of abstract representations. There is an active process by which different interpretations may result from a given information source. This is in contrast to the popular notion that knowledge can be unproblematically encoded and digitally stored and accessed.

Bannon and Kuutti (1996) argue that the term ‘organizational memory’ is widely used to mean a repository based on an implicit ‘memory as bin
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3.4 Pharmaceuticals for mental health: a brief history

The ‘revolution’ in drug therapy is widely credited with causing the mass closure of psychiatric hospitals in the 1950s and 1960s, meaning that patients who had previously been considered too much of a danger to themselves or others could be safely housed ‘in the community’ as long as they took the medication. However, the trend for a reduction in numbers was already evident at the time the drugs in question began to be available, and academics such as Joan Busfield and Andrew Scull a
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Capacities for managing development
The way forests around the world are managed is undergoing radical change. In the UK, local communities are buying forested land, to preserve forests for the greater benefit of society. In the developing world, forestry commissions are actively empowering villagers to engage in forest management and conservation. The video tracks on this album use case studies in the UK and in India to illustrate ways in which forest management is changing, and how such changes can be implemented. To complete th
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

2.6 Conclusion

This section has considered the reasons for different systems of accounting regulation in more detail. A number of factors external to accounting (e.g. the legal system and so-called ‘accidents of history’) have been important in shaping accounting regulations differently from one jurisdiction to another. The contingent model of accounting change provides an explanation of how accounting regulation continues to evolve and how dealing with one issue can have unintended consequences, leadin
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course you should be able to:

  • define ‘operations’ and ‘operations management’

  • identify the roles and responsibilities of operations managers in different organisational contexts

  • identify the operations management aspects of your own work

  • apply the ‘transformation model’ to identify the inputs, transformation processes and outputs of an organisation

  • identify the operational and administrat
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3 Governance, policy and action

It was noted earlier in this course that the models you would meet are both descriptive/explanatory and normative. In Section 2 they were used as explanatory tools to illuminate different possible causes as to why change might not happen in the ways that policy makers intended. This might be viewed as failure, or it might signify the system adapting to circumstances that were not covered by the original policy. In other words, not all implementation failure is necessarily a policy failure: po
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Tower Poetry 2014: Bat Child Found!
Third Prize winner of the 2014 Tower Poetry competition, Masha Voyles, reads her poem, 'Bat Child Found!'
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2.4.1 From Heidegger to knowledge technologies

Because each transformation from one ‘knowledge state’ to another (Figure 2) is an act of interpretation, there is no such thing as objective knowledge representation, or indeed objective classification or codification of any sort (in software or any other medium): there is always a viewpoint. This leads to the view that information and communication systems cannot be thought of as neutral; in their formal structures and operations they embody the goals and perspectives of their developer
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MIT Museum Second Friday - Ge Wang and Eran Egozy (3)
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1 Technological advancement

Everything that can be invented has been invented.

(The Commissioner of the United States Office of Patents, 1899, recommending that his office be abolished, quoted in The Economist, 2000, p. 5)

There is nothing now to be foreseen which can prevent the United States from enjoying an era of business prosperity which is entirely
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1.1 Policy delivery

The question of policy delivery seems to be growing in importance. So, for example, the Blair governments in the UK were, from the outset, preoccupied with ‘delivery, delivery, delivery’ as ministers and prime minister grew increasingly frustrated with what was often viewed as the intransigence of public service professionals. The constant cycle of change, in which new policies and initiatives were introduced in rapid succession, producing what critics described as ‘policy overload’ o
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Spanish Vocab Builder #28 - Music
Learn Mexican Spanish with SpanishPod101.com ! Our Mexican Spanish vocabulary lists are listener favorites, and now we’ve made it even better! In each lesson, you’ll hear the Mexican Spanish words and phrases from the Mexican Spanish vocabulary lists. Join us for Mexican Spanish Vocab Builder! In this lesson, you’ll learn words and phrases for Music. Click [...]
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Acknowledgements

Professor David Lambert is Chief Executive of the Geographical but remains Research Associate of the Institute of Education (London). He is a former secondary geography teacher (for 12 years) and developed a scholarly interest in assessment issues following the introduction of the national curriculum. He also has a research interest in the way teachers select and use textbooks with pupils. He has a long-standing concern with moral and cultural aspects of geography education and is current
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • identify factors that have influenced the development of financial reporting

  • provide examples of how those factors have effected change in particular countries

  • list a number of variables that affect the development of accounting rules in different jurisdictions

  • explain the contingent model of accounting change

  • apply the theories of accounting development to new situatio
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4.1 The boundary of the operations system

The simple transformation model in Figure 1 provides a powerful tool for looking at operations in many different contexts. It helps us to analyse and design operations in many types of organisation at many levels.

This model can be developed by identifying the boundaries of the operations system through which an organisation's goods or services are provided to its customers or clients. Author(s): The Open University