2.6.1 Connectors

Many techniques have been used to design connectors that align the fibre ends accurately with high reliability and a long lifetime. The development of such components, at a low enough price, has been an important part of the overall development which has made fibre a feasible proposition for commercial transmission systems.

With fibre attenuation down to 0.2 dB km−1 (for single-mode fibre), the losses resulting from connectors and splices can be very significant over a whol
Author(s): The Open University

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Hitlers Death - The Final Report - Part 5 of 5
There are images of a film that represented Hitler's death. One of the prisoners who had been in the bunker is shown today retelling the story again at the same place where the bodies had been burnt. There are images of the skull parts that were found in the place. The last remains fo the bodies were destroyed in 1970.
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Invasion of Poland 1 of 3
1943 War Department Film Bulletin No 48 produced by the Signal Corps Photographic Center. Invasion of Poland in Sept of 1939 which was the beginning of WWII. Contains footage shot by German troops and confiscated by the Allied Forces of artillery and infantry attacks which resulted in the capture of Warsaw. (06:51)
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The Role of Advanced VR Interfaces in Knowledge Management and Their Relevance to CAD
This paper introduces knowledge management and computer aided visualisation as a key in establishing both valuation and value creation capabilities in the enterprise where dissemination of knowledge and effective sharing of information through collaboration spur creativity and stimulate business practices. The paper draws an original approach for the design and development of a universal information/knowledge visualisation tool and outlines the mechanics that enable the working prototype that fo
Author(s): Ahmad Rafi, M.E. and Karboulonis, P.

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Material & Space: Synthesis Strategies based on Evolutionary Developmental Biology
A material system can be defined as a set of self-organized materials, defining a certain spatial arrangement. In architecture, this material arrangement acts as a threshold for space, though space often only appears as a by-product of the material organization. Treating space as a resulting, therefore secondary, independent product minimizes the capacity to generate architecture that is astutely aware of concerns of functionality, environment and energy. An effective arrangement of material can
Author(s): Ahlquist, Sean; Moritz Fleischmann

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Organisation and Connections
In this final episode Ivan Gololobov discusses the organisation of the punk scene and its connections to other social and cultural movements.
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Importing photos into the Organizer
Video tutorial describing the process to import media into Elements Organizer.
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2.5 Design implications

The difficulties just described have very practical implications when it comes to designing technologies. Consider the following quotations:

in selecting any representation we are in the very same act unavoidably making a set of decisions about how and what to see in the world …

a knowledge representation is a set of ontological commitments. It is unavoidably so because of the inevitable imperfections of
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Stage set for landmark U.S. Supreme Court gay marriage arguments
A line snakes around the block of the Supreme Court building with many gay rights supporters hoping to snag one of the seats for Tuesday's gay marriage arguments, as several plaintiffs with their families pose for a group photo. Rough Cut (no reporter narration). Subscribe: http://smarturl.it/reuterssubscribe More updates and breaking news: http://smarturl.it/BreakingNews Reuters tells the world's stories like no one else. As the largest international multimedia news provider, Reuters provides
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"Fall of Saigon" remembered by refugees who lived it
Forty years after the fall of Saigon, South Vietnamese refugees who survived it and later resettled in southern California honor the memories they can never forget. Bob Mezan reports. Subscribe: http://smarturl.it/reuterssubscribe More updates and breaking news: http://smarturl.it/BreakingNews Reuters tells the world's stories like no one else. As the largest international multimedia news provider, Reuters provides coverage around the globe and across topics including business, financial, nati
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Environment: LA River
Who killed the river that runs through Los Angeles? Did you even know there was a river? Using a mix of archive and new footage , this album tells the fascinating story of a city that has ignored the benefits of its river for decades. Now waking up to the fact that it could be a green belt with more acreage than all of Central Park, river activists are fighting developers to bring back nature to central Los Angeles. Up till now the city conquered the threat of floods by concreting over the river
Author(s): The iTunes U team

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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

5.4 Methodology, method, technique, and tools

As you engage with systems thinking and practice you will become aware how different authors refer to systems methodologies, methods, techniques, and tools, as well as systems approaches. Having just spent some time explaining what I mean by a systems approach, I now want to distinguish between methodology, method, technique and tool.

Several authors and practitioners have emphasised the significance of the term methodologies rather than methods in relation to Systems. A method i
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1.6 The social context of Babylonian mathematical activity

The extant mathematical tablets from the Old Babylonian period fall broadly into two categories, table texts and problem texts. You have seen examples of both of these. The weighing-the-stone problem with which we started is from a problem text, while all the others—the table of squares, the reciprocal table and Plimpton 322—are table texts, tablets consisting solely of tables of numbers. Several hundred table texts have been found, and many types of calculations appear to h
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4.6.1 Connecting people to people

Compared to even five years ago (a long time in technology), tools for virtual meetings and workspaces are extremely common now in many organisations, who typically purchase specialist products rather than develop their own. Tools for virtual meetings really have to work smoothly or the results are immediately obvious, and can be very high cost (for example, one cannot afford for a meeting with an important client to ‘crash’). Organisations are therefore willing to pay for robustness, 24
Author(s): The Open University

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At the court of the great moghul - Nicholas Fogg
Nicholas Fogg describes life at the Court of the Great Moghul, his campaigns, his foibles and his lasting impact on the history of India.
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3.3.1 Metaphors for organisational memory systems

Section 2 argued for a model of knowledge deriving from the situated interpretation of abstract representations. There is an active process by which different interpretations may result from a given information source. This is in contrast to the popular notion that knowledge can be unproblematically encoded and digitally stored and accessed.

Bannon and Kuutti (1996) argue that the term ‘organizational memory’ is widely used to mean a repository based on an implicit ‘memory as bin
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1.6 Defining global markets

Global markets for manufactured goods, as opposed to, say, primary commodities such as oil and timber, arose largely in the second half of the twentieth century as trade between countries intensified. The lowering of transport costs and the relative fall in trade barriers enabled firms in one country to compete wit
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4.1 Why was change needed?

Brenda Nickson highlights the absence of any support when her son was young; ignorance in the medical profession; the need for respite care, leisure provision, and some contact with other parents with similar problems.

Ann and Michael Tombs also mention the need for more services; the importance of a pressure group demanding changes; the need for a campaign to ensure that people with learning difficulties got treatment in hospital for things like cataract operations; alternatives to hos
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Thanksgiving Is a Celebration of Free Enterprise

[Every year at Thanksgiving-time I resurrect a column written by a fellow teacher, Kent Dillon, about the real reason we celebrate this holiday. It is a story no longer told in the textbooks because it is thoroughly unPC, and undermines the idea that government is the solver of all problems. We were teachers, as well as part of the crew, at The Flint School, a private, academic boarding school aboard two large sailing ships, and we used the world as a campus. Kent wrote this for the students&
Author(s): Judy Thommesen

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Learning outcomes

On completion of this unit, you should be able to:

  • identify some key themes in discourse analysis;

  • appreciate the consequences of discourse research for some key topics in social science, such as indentity, interaction and subjectivity;

  • be familiar with some discourse analytical techniques and their consequences for analysing social interactions.


Author(s): The Open University

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