2.1 Culture as socialisation

The cultural perspective has become popular in business studies because it offers a way of explaining performance and understanding difference. It is only one way of analysing business, but it is an interesting one as it focuses particularly on the insider point of view, or on what it is ‘really’ like to work in an organisation. There have been many definitions of organisational culture. One definition that is often cited is:


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4 Conclusion

This unit looked at the question of whether the financial markets are efficient in the sense that prices demanded are fair and reflect all known and relevant information about investments. The Efficient Markets Hypothesis defines such efficiency at three levels, depending on how much information is in fact incorporated into prices. The weak form states merely that the current price already reflects all information incorporated into previous prices, so that each successive price move is a reac
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1 The market context

There is no other proposition in economics which has more solid empirical evidence supporting it than the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

(Jensen, 1978)

I'd be a bum on the streets with a tin cup if the markets were efficient.

(Warren Buffett, attrib.)

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4.1 Introduction

This section looks at how discounted cash flow (DCF) and the net present value (NPV) rule help investors to choose between possible alternative investments and decide whether the return offered on an investment is worth it, given the risk.

  • DCF allows us to compare two alternative investments with different expected cash flows, different maturities and different risks.

  • NPV allows us to decide whether or not to go ahead in either case.


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2.2 Modern history – an evolution

So, what is modern about ‘modern medicine’? Several key scholars – notably Schwartzman (1976), Gambardella (1995), Galambos and Sturchio (1996) and Henderson et al. (1999) – have detected a pattern in the recent development of the industry which may help address this question. According to these scholars, the modern history of the industry can be analysed as an evolutionary process. This may involve changes, which are self-created, or adaptation to discrete technological or institutio
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6.5 The social construction of quantifiable risk

Earlier in this course we referred to the way in which social groups can develop shared cognitive schema. One important role for shared cognitive schema is to define the risks that we pay attention to, the dread in which we hold them and the perceived likelihood of their occurrence. Because these perceptions affect behaviour, they also play a role in selecting the risks that we face. In the last half century, some sociologists suggest (e.g. Beck, 1992; Giddens, 1990) that our concerns with ri
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7.2.2 Summarising

During a long negotiation, summarising what has been proposed and the stage that the negotiations have reached helps both to clarify key points and to create mutual trust by indicating that all perspectives are being taken into consideration.


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7.1 Sharing the project

As we have seen, the execution of a project may depend on the involvement and co-operation of several departments or functions within an organisation. If this is the case, then, for it to succeed, they must be prepared to share ownership of the project, be willing to work together to help the project achieve its objectives and be happy to release adequate resources when appropriate. The project manager and their team therefore have to create and maintain good relationships with all interested
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2.3 The challenge of terminology

Probably the biggest challenge that you will encounter is acquiring a command of the terms and concepts of this field of knowledge – even the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘science’ can seem off-putting. In your reading around this course you will come into contact with a wide range of ‘-isms’, ‘-sophies’ and ‘-ologies’, some of which you may have encountered in previous studies. Actually, these terms are best seen as shorthand for groups of assumptions and ideas about the way
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6.2 ‘No-choice’ dispersal

Dispersal as a strategy aimed at resolving tensions, avoiding ‘concentrations of aliens’ and preserving ‘ethnic balance’ and ‘cultural homogeneity’ is not a new idea, but one proposed for the settlement of successive groups of refugees, and indeed immigrants, since the 1930s, and also used in the 1960s and 1970s in relation to housing and education (Lewis, 1998). The government's asylum dispersal policy of 1999, intended to ‘ease the burden’ of the south-east of England, was b
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying sociology. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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4.3 Family meanings matter in social policies and professional practices

In the studies by Walkover and Ribbens we can see individuals caught between a generalised cultural ideal and the messiness and ambivalences of everyday lives. This tension between the generality of ‘family’ as an idealised model, and the fluidity of individual lives in everyday contexts, is also a key difficulty for the development of social policies, and for the procedures and administrative structures of professional practices. This takes us back to Bernardes' question: how is it possi
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand how arguments may be presented in the Social Sciences.


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3.3 The downside of the new economy

During the US boom of the 1990s, some economists attributed the paradox of economic growth, rising productivity, but stable or only modestly rising wage costs, to the growing sense of insecurity in the labour force (Greenspan, 1998). Employment insecurity is also emphasised by sociologists such as Ulrich Beck (2000) and Richard Sennett (1998). This section outlines some of their arguments because they are central to those who take a critical view of the new economy. Their arguments also conta
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References

Barber, L. (1998) Demon Barber, London, Viking.
Barthes, R. (1977) Image-Music-Text (ed. and trans. S. Heath), London, Fontana.
Bonner, F. (2003) Ordinary Television, London, Sage.
Boorstin, D.J. (1961) The Image: Or What Happened to the American Dream, Harmondsworth, Penguin.
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Conclusion

This free course, The body: a phenomenological psychological perspective, provided an introduction to studying sociology. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of level 3 study in Psychology: Author(s): The Open University

8.1 Introduction

One type of data model is an entity–relationship data model.

Experience has shown that data can be best described by relationships between entities. An entity is anything of interest about which data is recorded, such as roads, weather stations, trucks and weather station readings in the IceBreaker project in the book MRP. In general, there will be many relationships (or associations) linking the entities. A trivial example is the fact that a given weather reading
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7.3 Monitoring your progress

Use your records or logbook to help you provide a reflective commentary on:

  • what you did to help you set up and use IT methods and techniques to achieve your goals; for example, what you did to:

    • search for information and explore alternative lines of enquiry;

    • exchange information to meet your purpose (e.g. email, computer conferencing, video conferencing, web pages, document sharing systems);

      <
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5.1.6 Languages and Law

Your course will recommend appropriate dictionaries, grammars and reference books.


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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • demonstrate an understanding of fundamental aspects of the theory and methodology underpinning phenomenological psychology

  • critique simplistic mind–body, individual–social and agency–structure dualisms and appreciate how the body, self and society are interconnected

  • describe how phenomenological psychologists conceptualise the body.


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