8 Conclusion

We have seen that there are three independent pieces of evidence, all of which point to the occurrence of a big bang: (i) the recession of the galaxies; (ii) the cosmic microwave background; and (iii) the comparison between the calculated primordial nuclear abundances and the present-day composition of matter in the Universe. For these various reasons, the vast majority of cosmologists today accept that there was a big bang. This acceptance has been given extra support by the agreement betwee
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Introduction to differentiation
This free course is an introduction to differentiation. Section 1 looks at gradients of graphs and introduces differentiation from first principles. Section 2 looks at finding derivatives of simple functions. Section 3 introduces rates of change by looking at real life situations. Section 4 looks at using the derivative of a function to deduce useful facts for sketching its graph. Section 5 covers the second derivative test, used to determine the nature of stationary points and ends by looking a
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5.8 Bibliographic software

If you are considering taking your studies further you might like to consider using bibliographic software. Bibliographic software can be used to sort references, annotate them, manage quotations or create reading lists.

There are several software packages on the market. Some are listed below.

Open Educational Resources in Africa
Open Educational Resources in Africa
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9.5 Monitoring progress

Monitoring progress is about keeping track of how the work with others is going, making sure you are ‘on task’ and ‘on time’. You need to know how to monitor progress in managing a group activity and being a team member. This will involve considering the relationships within the group and managing the quality of the work by using the checkpoints to review the progress towards your goals and outcomes.

Monitoring progress in working with others involves you considering your progre
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • understand that individuals can promote change;

  • give examples of how the establishment of Bedfordshire Mencap has offered support to parents of children with learning difficulties.


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3.3 Care: a contested word

You have seen that the words used to label people who are seen as needing care can stigmatise them. By picking them out as unlike ‘normal’ people, people who do not need care, they can feel belittled, de-humanised and deprived of respect. But it is not just the labels like ‘mentally handicapped’, ‘lunatic’ or ‘mentally ill’ that are at issue. ‘Care’ as a word is itself under attack:

The t
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Combating air pollution
What’s in the air you breathe and how do you know it’s safe? Pollution control is vital since nobody has a choice when it comes to inhaling the air around them. This album introduces the scientific processes behind air monitoring and air quality management. The five video tracks explore the nature of pollution arising from different forms of transport, and look at how data is interpreted and how pollutants can be minimised. To complete the album, Senior Lecturer Rod Barratt explains the cho
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3.4 Interpreting the crime problem

The Whole City, My Lord, is alarm'd and uneasy. Wickedness has got such a Head, and the Robbers and Insolence of the Night are such that the citizens are no longer secure within their own Walls or safe even in passing their Streets, but are robbed, insulted, and abused, even at their own Doors … The citizens are oppressed by Rapin and Violence.

(Defoe, 1730, quoted in Reiner, 1996, p.2)

S
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Can The Referendum Be Democratic? Reflections On The Brexit Process
Stephen Tierney, Professor of Constitutional Theory in the School of Law, University of Edinburgh, In this FLJS lecture, Stephen Tierney, Professor of Constitutional Theory, University of Edinburgh, discusses the circumstances surrounding the forthcoming referendum on the United Kingdom’s membership of the European Union. We live in an age of direct democracy. Around the world the referendum is used more and more in processes of constitutional formation and change. This lecture will consider w
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Introduction

In this course, we emphasise the strategic importance of marketing communication, rather than seeing it as merely a tactical process of promoting the other elements of the marketing mix. Brands exist in the minds of customers not only through their experience of a product or service, but also because of the long-term effects of communication.

Traditional marketing models fail to capture the complexity of contemporary consumer behaviour. Simple cause and effect can no longer be relied up
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8.2 Actividad

Actividad 8.2

In this activity you are going to find out about three hotels situated in the old part of Barcelona and around the Ramblas, one of the main arteries of the city. You will also become familiar with ways of tal
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4.1 Introduction

I'll now look at what these components do in the communication system, using the mobile phone system as an example.


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1.4.2 The doctor–patient relationship

However, some care relationships are more tightly defined and more hierarchical, for example a doctor’s relationship with a patient. Within the biomedical model, the doctor’s role is to focus on the patient’s body and its functioning. The patient’s role is to report clearly and accurately on the body’s functions and the feelings it transmits. There is relatively little scope for the patient to influence the definition of this scene. The doctor generally makes the opening moves, whil
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7.3 Summary of Section 7

  • The historian Linda Colley locates the birth of ‘Britain’ after 1707. She mentions three main factors that contributed to establishing the British nation: war, religion and the prospect of material advantage.

  • The creation of the UK was not free from conflict, resistance, war and military intervention.

  • The British Empire generated a unique opportunity for most UK nations to participate and enjoy some of the benefits it brough
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Protecting architectural world heritage from earthquakes
Dr Dina D'Ayala discusses the fundamental concepts of earthquake engineering and recent research developments in the field of earthquake protection.
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Facilitating creative thinking
How do you solve your problems? This album follows two facilitators as they lead a 2-day workshop in creative problem-solving, providing a chance to adopt a new approach to the difficulties we encounter in our daily lives. Their reflections on time-keeping and good facilitation provide insight whilst the group tackle problems they’ve experienced at work, using different processes and techniques. This material forms part of The Open University course B822, Creativity, innovation and change.
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4.4 Using information

Our use of information is often biased in important regards. First, we pay more attention to information that is easily available (the availability heuristic). Second, we overweight memories which are more easily retrievable – usually because they are emotionally vivid or have personal relevance (the retrievability heuristic).

We pay selective attention to information, often in a self-serving way. We will often give greater weight to information which shows us in a favou
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4.12.1 Communities of practice and technology

Communities of practice are technical and social networks which set the context in which new knowledge arises in daily work, and determine how it is shared and interpreted, what counts as important knowledge and how people become recognised as members of that community:

A good deal of new technology attends primarily to individuals and the explicit information that passes between them. To support the flow of knowledge,
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4.4 Historical note on the Euler characteristic

A little history is instructive here, because it shows how difficult Theorem 9 really is. By 1900 the classification of compact surfaces was well understood, although proofs of the major theorems relied more on intuition than would be acceptable today. Attention switched to objects called ‘3-manifolds’, topological spaces each point
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