2.2 Environmental pragmatism: positioning expert support

I believe that the principal task for an environmental pragmatism is not to reengage the … debates in environmental ethics but rather to impress upon environmental philosophers the need to take up the largely empirical question of what morally motivates humans to change their attitudes, behaviours, and policy preferences toward those more supportive of long-term environmental sustainability.

(Light, 2002, p. 446)


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1.4.1 Dealing meaningfully with holism

Ulrich's primary observation is quite straightforward. Any system as a human construct is unable to capture the total complexity of interrelationships and interdependencies that make up the real world. This idea resonates with the paradox of framing referred to by Moore. It also resonates with Ilan Kapoor's reference to the work of Slavoj Žižek, quoted earlier: ‘Reality is what we (mistakenly) take to be wholeness or harmony, while the Real denotes the impossibility of wholeness’ (Kapoo
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1.2.6 Defining global markets

Global markets for manufactured goods, as opposed to, say, primary commodities such as oil and timber, arose largely in the second half of the twentieth century as trade between countries intensified. The lowering of transport costs and the relative fall in trade barriers enabled firms in one country to compete with a domestic rival in another. The supply of manufactured goods across the globe as a result of worldwide demand, principally from the affluent economies, thus heightened competitio
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References

Allison, L. (1991) Ecology and Utility: The Philosophical Dilemmas of Planetary Management, Leicester, Leicester University Press.
BBC (2008) ‘The wrong way to a warmer world?’ [online], BBC News, 3 April, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/analysis/7328634.stm (accessed 15/4/10).
van den Born, R.J.G. (2008) ‘Rethinking nature: public visions in the Netherlands
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3.2 Multiple causes

Now we will explore multiple causes using an example familiar to us all – road accidents. The deaths of about 10 people each day on the UK's roads are less dramatic than, for example, the capsize of the Herald of Free Enterprise, but one feature that links them both is the element of risk associated with everything we do – and even with inaction.

We have just seen that many factors contribute to the risks which result from the inherent hazards associated with something we do.
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1 Safety, health and environmental management – a risky business!

While views on management differ, Safety, Health and Environmental (SHE) management is merely a subset of management to which the same generalities apply. Indeed, at the end of this free course we will see indications of the integrating concepts being promoted by organisations. However, for the present we can translate the key actions of management into:

  • Plan – anticipate problems before they occur, and plan for prevention rather than remedy
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2.1 Issues of responsibility

The aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami saw an unprecedented aid effort to assist the affected regions. In the early days after the disaster, pledges of financial assistance from overseas governments were often outstripped by the generosity of their own populaces. This was a case when ordinary people around the world saw and were moved by the tragic circumstances of others far away (Rose, 2006), and they responded with gifts of money and provisions, and even with offers of their own sk
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Supply chains: Smart cars
What happens when you bring the best of two famous brands together? What sorts of innovations can emerge, and how is a brand image created for the new product? The Smart car came about as a result of a collaboration between car manufacturer Mercedes-Benz and Swatch, the Swiss watch maker. This album examines the innovations behind the Smart car, its supply chain, and its assembly line in Hambach, France, where a finished car is produced every 96 seconds. With its major suppliers situated on the
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Supply chains: healthcare
From surgical tools to obstetric instruments, personalised colostomy bags to hip implants, the UK's National Health Service requires an astonishing number of products to be manufactured, delivered and routinely managed. What happens behind the scenes to ensure the systems function smoothly? This album focuses on the different roles of B.Braun, a large supplier of medical equipment which also provides customised services for patients. In this time-critical setting, their supply chain processes mu
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Cyborgs and cybernetics
What are cyborgs? Would a cyborg future deliver positive human advances or a Hollywood-style nightmare in which human beings have become a sub-species? Could we one day download our minds? This album gives an insight into the development of cybernetics and how it is used to fuse technology and humanity. The interfaces that communicate between man and machine are developing rapidly and to Prof. Kevin Warwick at Reading University, cyborgs are a technological evolutionary step forward from humans.
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Structural Integrity: designing against failure
The Kinzua rail viaduct, in Pennsylvania, collapsed when it was hit by a tornado in 2003. First built in 1882 and redesigned 1900, it was at one time the highest bridge in the world. The two video tracks in this album tell the story of the Kinzua catastrophe. The subsequent forensic investigation has cast new light on the failure of Tay rail bridge in Scotland 125 years earlier; with 75 people killed, the worst ever disaster to befall a trestle bridge. This material forms part of the course T3
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Riddle of the Tay Bridge disaster
On December 28th 1879, the Tay Bridge collapsed as a train passed over it, killing all 75 passengers on board. At the time of this tragedy, the Tay Bridge was the longest bridge in the world, and to this day the accident remains the worst structural disaster the UK has ever seen. This album attempts to unlock the mystery of this catastrophe, through several plausible explanations and expert opinions. This material forms part of the course T173 Engineering the future.Author(s): The OpenLearn team

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Brass Instruments
Technology and music have been closely associated since the very first musical instruments were constructed, and in the 19th century an explosion of invention revolutionised the way brass instruments could be played. The 14 video tracks on this album introduce the basic acoustical principles of brass instruments and how technical developments have affected the way they are designed and played. The album explores the latest scientific research, performers' perspectives and the manufacturing proce
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Innovation Design: Energy and Sustainability
When you switch on a light or turn the heating on in your home, do you think about where that power has come from? In most of the world, we’re still burning harmful fossil fuels to create energy. However, throughout Europe a growing number of householders have decided to put the environment first, by switching to a “green tariff” with energy suppliers who can guarantee renewable, fossil fuel-free energy. This album explores the various ways in which innovative technologies - such as wind-f
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Design and Sustainability
Are you aware of the environmental impacts of the stuff you buy? Is that chair you bought made from wood from a sustainable forest, or was it illegally logged ? Or perhaps your TV set's inner parts are too difficult to recycle or cause pollution when it’s dismantled at the end of its life. All this adds up to a huge amount of damage to the planet. This album looks at how designers must respond to the increasingly urgent need for sustainability in product design. Designers now need to come up
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The Four Generations of Computers
Computers play a huge part in almost all of our lives, but how did these machines become so powerful and important? And what were some of the earliest models like? This collection of videos takes us through the Four Generations of computers, starting with Colossus, the world's first electronic computer (launched in 1944), and finishing with the BBC Micro (launched in 1981) and Fourth Generation Computers, looking at how technology changed throughout these years. Visiting locations such as The Na
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Managing for Sustainability
What are the key issues for sustainable resource management? How do companies operate while maintaining corporate social responsibility? From understanding the need for sustainability, and environmental auditing to learning how organisations integrate health and safety policy. This collection/album explores many of the issues that face modern businesses and gives some insight into how these companies function while adhering to various environmental management systems. This material is taken fr
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Personal development planning for engineering
This free course, Personal development planning for engineering, has been written in keeping with the requirements of UK-SPEC and the professional engineering institutions (e.g. ImechE, IET etc). It will provide you with a range of relevant information and guidance in critically assessing and scrutinising your career development aspirations. First p
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Microelectronic solutions for digital photography
The human eye is a fascinating and complicated device, but how do digital cameras capture images? This free course, Microelectronic solutions for digital photography, examines one of the humanmachine interfaces that link optical information to the electronic world. You will learn how the components within a digital camera capture images for electronic manipulation. Author(s): Creator not set

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2.3.4 The contract team

The contract team is brought in from outside in order to do the project work. Here, the responsibility to deliver the project rests very firmly with the project manager. The client will find such a team harder to control directly. On the other hand, it is the client who will judge the success of the project, so the project manager has to keep an eye constantly on the physical outcomes of the project. A variant of this is the so-called 'outsourced supply team', which simply means that the team
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