Waste Management
How much do you think about what you throw away? A waste management cycle is essential for a sustainable future. This album considers the policy and legislation that is driving waste management processes across the EU. By modelling the overall environmental impacts of solid waste disposal methods, the UK government has now created a hierarchy of waste and local management strategies. The 12 video tracks in this album offer an in depth look at each of these processes, concentrating on waste coll
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2.1 Boiling water

Whether it's to wash clothes, make a cup of tea, or just make it safe to drink, water often has to be heated – sometimes to boiling point. There are many ways to do this, but a very common means is some form of electric water-boiler, such as a kettle or an urn. In all but the crudest ones, a device is fitted to ensure that heating does not continue once the boiling point of water is reached.

In deciding on the type and design of such a device, we can suppose that a company manufacturi
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4.1 Types of projects

Formal projects are a familiar part of nearly all work situations and are often a staple part of some organisations. Because of this it is worth looking at some of the features of formal projects and their management, as they have some different characteristics from other ongoing activities.

To write about projects, we have to define what they are and describe how they arise. Projects and project work are often contrasted with process: 'process', in this sense, describes the normal day-
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3.2.7 Ways that groups go wrong

Before leaving Reading 2, it is worth mentioning some of the characteristic ways that groups 'go wrong'. Why should a group, asked to design a camel, produce a horse? You might expect that when we pool the talents, experience and knowledge of a group, the result would be better, not worse, than that of any individual member. But as groups design 'horses' so frequently there must be some fairly familiar decision-making processes at work. Probably the most common problems are those that have al
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3.1 Belonging to a group

Because work groups are of central significance in the functioning of an organisation they have been studied intensively, and much has been written about group processes. In this reading it would be inappropriate to attempt to review this vast literature, which covers an enormous range of topics and aspects of groups. Instead, I focus attention here on two particular aspects of groups. First, I examine the nature of the contracts within a group: what it is that people gain from belonging to a
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2.3.1 The functional team

The hierarchical structure described above divides groups of people along largely functional lines: people working together carry out the same or similar functions. A functional team is a team in which work is carried out within such a functionally organised group. This can be project work. In organisations in which the functional divisions are relatively rigid, project work can be handed from one functional team to another in order to complete the work. For example, work on a new product can
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2.7 Cabling

A distinction must be made between the optical fibre – a single strand of glass fibre – and the optical-fibre cable consisting of one or more strands of fibre and various protective coverings.

Bare optical fibre is fragile and vulnerable, and the cabling must provide the properties given below.

  • Tensile strength: The cable should prevent the fibre being strained when the cable is under tension. When the cable is being laid, for example,
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6 Radiation

All the primary vibrators we discussed in the previous section can to some extent communicate vibrations to the surrounding air and hence radiate sound. However, some radiate sound better than others. Air columns, for example, radiate sound quite well. Even though only around 1% of the energy possessed by a vibrating air column is radiated away, this is enough to produce a clearly audible note.

Similarly, circular membranes and circular plates are also good sound radiators. They have a
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5.2 Vibrating string: speed of wave propagation

If standing waves are set up when two travelling waves moving in opposite directions interact, then how are standing waves set up on a string and why are they set up only at certain frequencies?

To help answer these questions, I want you first to imagine a length of string that is fixed at one end and held in someone's hand at the other. Suppose the person holding the string flicks their end of the string in such a way that an upward pulse is sent along the string.

As the pulse pa
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4 Excitation

For a player to be able to sound a musical instrument, there must be a means of inputting energy to set up the vibration. This energy may be introduced in a short, sharp burst or continuously over a period of time.

In the case of brass instruments such as the trumpet and trombone, and woodwind instruments such as the flute and oboe, the player feeds in energy by blowing air into the instrument. The energy can be supplied in a short burst – in which case short-lived ‘staccato’ note
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2 What is a musical instrument?

Figure 1

2.4 Keyboard and mouse alternatives

Described image
Figure 11 An ergono
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Wordsworth, De Quincy and Dove cottage
Can a location inspire great poetry? To what extent can a person’s environment influence their art? After leaving the area as a child the Romantic poet William Wordsworth returned to the Lake District and remained there from 1799 to 1802. Surrounded by scenery he cherished Wordsworth composed some of his best poetry in Dove Cottage, but the building was also the residence of friend Thomas De Quincy whom documented his time with the Wordsworth’s as well as his own experiences in the property.
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John Webster, The Duchess of Malfi
This free course, John Webster, The Duchess of Malfi, concentrates on Acts 1 and 2 of John Webster's Renaissance tragedy, The Duchess of Malfi. It focuses on the representation of marriage for love and the social conflicts to which it gives rise. The course is designed to hone your skills of textual analysis. First pu
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Introduction

Most of us today take photographs for our family albums. The lucky ones among us have also inherited family photographs from the past. These photographs provide another type of record that can offer insights into our family history. But what can they tell us? How can we elicit the information they hold? And how do we analyse or evaluate that information? The purpose of this course is to suggest how to approach the interpretation of the photographic record.

Please keep referring to your
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4.4 The guillotine

The new system of departments introduced in 1790 removed the many differing and often overlapping jurisdictions of Old Regime France and replaced them with a uniform system of justice. Each department had its own criminal court, each district a civil court. All criminal cases were to be tried by jury, another revolutionary innovation. Enlightenment thinkers including Montesquieu and Voltaire had criticized the arbitrariness and brutality of penal practice in Old Regime France. Judicial tortur
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2.2.1 Sample analysis and discussion of ‘What is the Third Estate?’

Let us take a closer look at part of this document before attempting the exercise below. This preamble should help you to relate to similar exercises in this course. The document is quite long, by far the longest one associated with this course; but you should not find it difficult to read it through fairly quickly and to extract its main points, to grasp Sieyès's ‘message’, and to note how he conveyed it. After you have read it through once, re-read it from the beginning up to
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Acknowledgements

This course was written by Dr Robert Philip.

This free course is an adapted extract from the course A207 From Enlightenment to Romanticism, which is currently out of presentation

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Author(s): The Open University