References

IEC 60793-2-10 (1992) International Standard 60793-2-10 Optical Fibres – Part 2-10: Product Specifications – Sectional specification for category A1 multimode fibres, International Electrotechnical Commission.
IEC 60793-2-50 (1992) International Standard 60793-2-10 Optical Fibres – Part 2-;50: Product Specifications – Sectional specification for category B single mode fibres, International Electr
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Appendix 1 Terminology

After studying this unit you should be able to explain the meaning of the following terms:

all-optical network

angle-polished convex connector

bandwidth-distance product

chirp

combiner

connector

continuous wave operation

dense wavelength division multiplexing

direct modulation directional coupler dispersion

dispersion compensation dispersion-shifted fibre electro-optic material excess loss external modulation extinction ratio four-wa
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3.2 Directional couplers

A simple yet valuable device is the directional coupler (Figure 19). A directional coupler can be constructed from two single-mode fibres by bringing them into close contact and heating so that the glass melts and the two fibres fuse. Light can then pass from one fibre to the ot
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2.4.2 Dispersion in single-mode fibre

Because there is only one mode in single-mode fibre, there is no multimode distortion but pulses are spread by dispersion.

Dispersion is the effect of different frequencies propagating at different speeds, and there are various mechanisms in optical fibre which mean that in general a fibre is dispersive. Given that dispersion takes place, a transmitted pulse will be spread because different frequency components in the pulse will take different lengths of time to propagate
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Introduction

This unit is adapted from the Open University course Business operations: delivering value (T883_1), which is about the essence of any enterprise – that core set of processes needed to convert various resources (such as materials, money and the effort of people) into outputs (such as manufactured goods and/or delivered services) that provide value to customers and other stakeholders. T
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2 Specifications for image capture

This section is about the performance specification for a captured image. Cameras do not attempt to copy the way in which light signals are detected and processed by nerve cells in the eye – the latter is based on quite different principles from those we have seen here, using changes in molecular shape within proteins to detect light and initiate a response.

Photography began as a means of capturing images that the human eye would have seen. That task involves obtaining full-colour i
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1.3 The capacity of an MOS structure to store charge

Figure 1 shows a schematic section through an MOS structure and sets up a colour scheme that distinguishes the different layers. In this case the M-layer is provided by heavily doped polysilicon and the semiconductor base material is p-type silicon.


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2.3 Berliner experiments with plates

Emile Berliner was a young German immigrant to the USA with an interest in science. Whilst working in several menial jobs he educated himself in basic physics and chemistry, eventually building a small laboratory at his boarding house. Experiments with electricity and acoustics led to his invention of a new telephone transmitter, which he sold, enabling him to set up as a full-time inventor. He became interested in recording sound through studying a device called the phonoautograph. This appa
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3.2 Summary

The number of cycles of oscillation per second, both for a vibrating source and a pressure wave, is known as the frequency, symbol f Frequency is specified in hertz (Hz) or kilohertz (kHz). One hertz is one cycle per second; one kilohertz is one thousand cycles per second. Frequency and period are directly related. Frequency is the reciprocal of period:

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2.3 Pressure waves and cycles

In this section we shall be looking at the behaviour and properties of pressure waves in the atmosphere.

Sound originates from the motion or vibration of an object. Let's look at an example of a sound wave generated by a vibrating tuning fork. The prongs of the tuning fork move backwards and forwards cyclically. A cycle is a complete series of movements up to the point where the movement starts to repeat itself. As the prongs of the fork vibrate back and forth they push on neighbouring
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2.2 Pressure in the atmosphere

The sounds we hear generally consist of rapid fluctuations of air pressure in the atmosphere that surrounds us. Sound can also be transmitted through other media, for instance water, so not all sound consists of fluctuations in air pressure. However, for the purposes of this discussion I shall confine myself to sound in air.

These fluctuations in air pressure are caused by a local disturbance to the air pressure, which might be sudden and transient – for example, when a paper bag is b
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5.1 Introduction

In this section, I shall explore the features of the contextualising (systems-methods) ball – the C ball. I will make a distinction between systemic and systematic thinking and action and I will argue that the aware systems practitioner has more choices than the practitioner who is not aware.

An aware practitioner is able to contextualise a diverse array of methods at their disposal creating an opportunity for a greater range of advantageous changes in the ‘real world’ situation.
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4.2 Articulating your appreciation of complexity

Initially, I would like you to notice whether and how your appreciation of the phrase ‘managing complexity’ has changed since you started the unit. As you work through Section 4 you will encounter a number of ways of thinking about complexity that may be new to you, so it becomes important to record your developing understanding. To help you with this, return to your notes on Author(s): The Open University

4.1 Articulating your appreciation of complexity

I have organised the material in this section so that you can follow the activity route shown in Figure 36.

This section is primarily concerned with what can be understood by the term complexity, and how to compare it with the ideas of difficulty and mess you may
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3.1 The state of ‘Being’

The structure of Section 3 is set out in Figure 25. Use this as a way of keeping track of the argument I am making.

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9.9 Perspectives review

Just as you were completing your rich picture, I asked you to identify and record any stakeholdings, thinking, feelings, and views about what to do. In the next activity, I invite you to do a similar exercise based on where you are now. I then want you to re-examine the notes and compare the earlier perspective against your current perspective.

Expect to spend about half an hour on this activity.

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8.2 Stakeholder traps

I've found it's not at all uncommon to discover I have a stake in a situation. Complex situations often spread their tentacles into all sorts of areas, so that the number of people touched by them can be very large. This increases the chances of an individual acquiring a stake, even an indirect or second hand one. The human capacity to empathise draws me into a situation so that I form pre-judgements about fairness, blame and so on without really trying. In many ways this is to be welcomed
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6 Part 2: 2 Immersing yourself in complexity

The first three activities in Figure 4 are to plan a strategy, then to immerse yourself in an example of complexity, and then represent that complexity through drawing a rich picture. I've selected a rich picture as the focus of this task because it is a means of bringing you into a r
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18.5 Government regulations and legislation

You saw earlier in Part 2 how governments can stimulate invention by providing incentives for manufacturers to develop new products. The example given was in the field of alternative fuel vehicles in the USA and Europe. As well as influencing the development of innovations, government legislation and regulations can also affect diffusion by creating conditions that encourage consumers to buy and use particular innovations.

In the UK the government has introduced a mixture of incentives
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17.4 Standards and their role in innovation

Standards were originally related to units of measurement. The first ‘standard’ was the Egyptian royal cubit, which was made of black granite and was said to be equivalent to the length of the Pharoah's forearm and hand. This was also subdivided into finger, palm and hand widths – one ‘small cubit’ was equivalent to six palms. But because the human forearm was the master reference this meant that the cubit varied in different parts of the world. Over thousands of years agreement ove
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