7.1 Processing meanings

Reading and thinking requires you to begin to process the material you read in preparation for re-presenting it in assessments. Initially, processing happens in your head. Selecting what to identify and extract will start the process off. Summarizing the arguments continues this process and, crucially, gets you started on reproducing ideas in your own words. The next stage is to develop your notes further by thinking more consciously about the material you have read and the points you
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6 Extracting a summary

In developing short notes you are already beginning to extract key ideas from the text. To assist you further in this you might also find it helpful to bring the points you have highlighted and/or made short notes about together. This involves the use of link sentences and words, perhaps even the addition of short quotes taken from the text directly, and examples or additional words of explanation. In this way your notes build up into a summary which you can use more easily.

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5 Keeping it short: jottings, abbreviations and symbols

Once you have identified the key ideas you are in a position to take some brief notes or jottings. Indeed, you will find that highlighting on its own is a rather passive process and as a result you may not remember the ideas that you identified. Rather than returning to the highlighted text every time you want to revisit or draw upon these ideas, only to find that what you have marked does not make sense to you anymore, it is useful to develop a form of short note taking. So, getting k
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The autistic spectrum: From theory to practice
Most of us have a very vague and narrow concept of what autism is, based mainly on such stereotypes as Dustin Hoffman's character in the film Rain Man. In this unit you will discover that there is a wide spectrum of disorders associated with autism, and an equally wide range of approaches to diagnosis and treatment. First published on Tue, 04 Dec 2012 as
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3.2 Consciousness of the body

Phenomenological theorists distinguish between the subjective body (as lived and experienced) and the objective body (as observed and scientifically investigated). These are not two different bodies as such (phenomenologists pride themselves on overcoming dualisms!); rather they are different facets of our experience and consciousness.

The body-subject, or subjective body, is the body-as-it-is-lived. I do not simply possess a body; I am my body (Merleau-Ponty, 1962
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Introduction

The body has traditionally been treated as a biological object in psychology. However, some psychologists believe there is more to our bodies than that as they recognise that it is through the body that we relate to other people and the world about us. This unit explores one particular theoretical perspective on embodiment: the phenomenological psychological perspective. This is an approach to psychology that acknowledges the social nature of embodiment, placing embodied experience centre sta
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5.4 Summary of Section 5

Many familiar themes have re-emerged in this section, together with the recognition that attention is involved in the assembly of remembered material as well as of current perceptions.

  • Attention is associated with the generation of perceptual objects.

  • In addition to being an essential part of external stimulus processing, attention influences remembered experiences.

  • ERP data show that cortical signals derived from una
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2 Assessing the current situation

‘Success depends as much on the quality of the planning as on the specific content of the plan’;

Creese (1995)

Change is constant in education. Effective forward planning will take account of all the known different factors, positive or negative, that might impact upon the school over the period of time that the plan is intended to cover. Some of these will be internal to the school, ot
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2.2 Chair of Governors

The role of the Chair of Governors is particularly important, as it is the Chair who will provide leadership for the governing body. It can be a time-consuming job so, to prevent it from becoming too onerous, the Chair should encourage other members to become more involved.

An effective Chair can provide invaluable support for the school. A clear understanding of the role of the governing body, a positive and pro-active approach to the management of its responsibilities, and a good work
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5.6.4 Educational software/learning application

Barstow, C. andRothberg, M. (2002) IMS Guidelines for Developing Accessible Learning Applications

Hardware

IBM, ‘Hardware accessibility’ checklist.


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4.6.1 What if a learning objective CAN'T be achieved?

What can you do if you have considered all the adjustments appropriate for a particular student and you have determined that they can't achieve the learning objective?


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3.8.1 Use of computers by physically impaired people

As described above, people may have a wide range of physical impairments, which differ in terms of the extent to which they impair computer use, indeed they may only need suitable furniture. The assistive technology used depends on the person's specific disability.

People who have limited use of their hands or arms, or have reduced control of fine movements, may use a variety of input devices that suit their specific requirements, such as adapted keyboards, mice, trackballs and joystick
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References

Hughes, M. (1991) Closing the Learning Gap, Network Educational Press Ltd.
Lucas, W. (2001) Power Up Your Mind, Nicholas Brearley Publishing.
Rose, C. (1985) Accelerated Learning, Accelerated Learning Systems Ltd.
UNESCO (1977) Suggestive, accelerative learning and teaching: A manual of classroom procedures base
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3. Review and recall

Learning cannot take place without memory, and we expect our students to be able to process, synthesise and recall a vast amount of information every day. There are, however, some simple strategies that we can employ to help them to do this.

Firstly consider the natural concentration span. A rough guide is that concentration span in minutes is equivalent to chronological age in years, +/− 2 minutes. That means that even our most attentive 18 year olds need a short concentration break
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References

Bush T. and Middlewood D. (1997) Managing People in Education, Paul Chapman, London, p. 172.
The Education (School Teacher Appraisal) (England) Regulations 2000
DfES/Ofsted 2005, A New Relationship with Schools: Next Steps.

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1.3 Concern over falling standards: a policy for the ‘90s

There followed a number of reports from the Scottish Education Office to schools offering guidance in developing particular aspects of the curriculum. These culminated in a consultative paper Curriculum and Assessment in Scotland: a policy for the ‘90s (SED, 1987) which identified apparent poor practice in school curricular policy-making, lack of continuity in the school curriculum, lack of challenge for students in Years 6 and 7 of primary schools, lack of consistency in the practic
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4.1 Sources of material

You will probably be making an OER in an area in which you have some expertise so you are likely to already have lesson plans and resources that you use in your face-to-face work that will be invaluable to others.

As well as your own materials, you might like to look at a range of other OER repositories in addition to OpenLearn.

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Introduction

This unit looks at the pedagogical issues involved in the creation and selection of self-study educational resources for a set of intended learning outcomes as exemplified here on OpenLearn. It is a unit about writing a unit. Although it considers the way that people at The Open University set about writing open-learning materials, it will not focus specifically on the University’s particular production system. Nor does it look deeply at the technical issues involved in producing certain ty
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Acknowledgements

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Author details

Sue Platt has been a school governor for 21 years, at both primary and sec
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