2.7.5 Identities are negotiated

In constructing their identities, people can only draw on terms that are available in society at that time, which have meanings and associations attached. However, people may attribute different meanings and importance to those labels. This means people always negotiate their identities, in the context of the different meanings attached to them.

Taking this view of identity, as a social process that people engage in, rather than as a fixed essence inside them, is not to deny that partic
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3 Welfare

Earlier, in Activity 1, some contrasting associations with the word ‘welfare’ emerged. Just to remind you, they were:

Positive: concern, happiness, prosperity, wellbeing, success, profit, support, safety-net, sharing, goodwill, concern, benefit, provision.

Negative: needy, failing, controlling, labelling, deserving, denying, official, not managing, stigma, shame, poverty, idleness, fecklessness, scrounging, hand-outs, charity, demeaning, benefits.

From one
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2 Community

As you've just seen, ‘community’, an ever present word, evokes some contrasting meanings. It has been described as a ‘keyword’, that is, a word which has its own particular history but which also plays a significant role in putting across different meanings. Identifying a keyword is to go further than just giving a dictionary definition because:

Keywords have been more than ways of seeing: they have been influe
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1 What's in a title? An introduction

Because the words ‘care’, ‘welfare’ and ‘community’ are so much a part of everyday language and debate, there's perhaps an assumption that people agree about what they each mean. These are three words that mostly evoke warm and positive feelings. In Activity 1 you're asked to think about opposite points of view.

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2.2 1 Social Darwinism and eugenics

Nineteenth century reformers combined their new medical diagnoses with a concern to tackle what they saw as the social causes of cruelty and incapacity. Two theories dominated: social Darwinism and eugenics.

Social Darwinism drew on Darwin's ideas of natural selection and emphasised the contribution of the fittest and most superior individuals to the survival of the human species. The social Darwinists, who included some of the most prominent thinkers of their time, believed that social
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to use material:

Illustrations: pp 10,14, 19, 21: Brenda Prince/Format; p19 (top): Sally and Richard Greenhill.

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1.4.2 Racism

You may want to question whether the term ‘sexism’ is a useful one to help understand the Beveridge vision, but you can probably agree that there is an idea about the family and about the ‘natural’ responsibility of women to do caring work that kept caring off the public agenda. But this still leaves the theme of ‘racism’ and the idea of the ‘nation’. You caught a glimpse of the importance of this a little earlier in Beveridge's confident remark about women having duties to en
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1.2.3 Did Beveridge wear blinkers?

Activity 2: Who isn't mentioned?

0 hours 10 minutes

Jacobs singled out several groups who were not covered by the insurance scheme. They include:

    <
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1.2.2 Problems with implementation

Writing a report is one thing – getting it implemented as policy is another. In the full version of An Introduction to the Beveridge Report, Jacobs (1992a) makes clear that there were a number of departures from the blueprint when the Labour government came to steering the legislation through parliament. One was a move to greater generosity. The report had recommended that the new pensions should be phased in over a period of 20 years to allow people to build up their contributions.
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Learning outcomes

After studying this Unit you should be able to:

  • demonstrate your understanding of how social welfare policy started to evolve at a national level after World War II;

  • locate information relevant to social welfare through reference to a range of sources;

  • evaluate the reliability of information from different sources.


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1: Introducing Jim and Marianne

The lifestyles of long-term drug abusers are frequently sensationalised
The lifestyles of long-term drug abusers are fre
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Every effort has been made to trace all copyright owners, but if any has been inadvertently overlooked, the publishers will be pleased to make the nece
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References

Ariès, P. (1976) Western Attitudes Towards Death, Marion Boyars, London.
Cartwright, A., Hockey, L. and Anderson, J. (1973) Life before Death, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.
Dinnage, R. (1990) The Ruffian on the Stair: Reflections on Death, Viking, London.
Fenwick, P. and Fenwick, E. (1996) ‘The near-death
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1.4.13 Defining a ‘good death’

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1.2.9 Nick

In our society we tend to expect not to have to face the likelihood of death until our 70s at least, but one group of people who are having to face the prospect of death at a relatively young age are those diagnosed as HIV-positive. Controversy surrounds the issue of whether those at risk of contracting the virus should have the blood test which might give them that death sentence. At the time of writing there is no clear evidence that any treatment can improve the prognosis, even if taken at
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1.2.1 Death and Tolstoy

Inevitably, the way in which people deal with death, whether by denial or by the construction of a complex system of beliefs and myths, leads to questions about the meaning of life. For Julia Neuberger this is the lesson of death. ‘It is nothing to fear of itself, but it concentrates the mind powerfully in examining what it is we mean by life’ (Neuberger and White, 1991, p. 13).

1 Attachment to place

In this unit we are going to consider the way in which people identify and become attached to places, buildings, objects, and how this attachment can contribute to personal well-being or how we feel about ourselves (Low and Altman, 1992). Looking at why places become important provides a basis for asking questions about what happens when people have to move, a common occurrence for people in need of care services.

The purpose of this unit is to focus on the psychological environment, ho
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3.3.1 Care: a cautious definition

For study purposes, we do need a definition of care, just as we needed a definition of informal carer. So we propose that in the context of health and social care we define care as:

something that is needed when people cannot function in daily life without the practical help of others.

But, as I have shown, care is a loaded word. It is both a word used by ordinary people to mean love, tende
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3.2.1 Words and images

Words like ‘mental defective’ are also linked with images. Together, the words and the images make a powerful impact.

Activity 9 Words and images

0 hours 10 minutes

Look a
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1.5.4 Networks

The way Katrina's story is presented leaves out others who may be involved with the family. This is because the story was part of a campaign by Community Care magazine to highlight the plight of young carers. It made sense to emphasise Katrina's role and omit information which might detract from the impact of a single-issue campaign.

The discovery of young carers is an interesting example of what happens when the official spotlight is turned on a particular group in society. Ther
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