Beginner - Electric heater

Now that the winter is here, many people rush to buy electric heaters, and it does get cold in some Arab countries. Tune in to learn how to buy one to keep you warm and comfy in the cold winter times.


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News #170 - 10 Days of Epic Japanese Holiday Deals Start Midnight, Tonight
Missed out on the Black Friday and Cyber Monday deals at JapanesePod101.com? Bad news: those deals are gone. The good news? The JapanesePod101.com Holiday Countdown Party begins December 10th, 2012 with 10 days of the biggest and best Japanese learning gifts. Just 2 catches though: these deals last 24 hours each and you’ll only see [...]
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U.S. Morning Call: M&A heats up for AIG, A123
Dec 10 - AIG agreed to sell nearly all of ILFC, the world's second-largest airplane leasing business, to a Chinese consortium, and China's Wanxiang Group won an auction for bankrupt battery maker A123 Systems.
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Fishing crow using bread as bait

An intelligent hooded crow uses bread to lure and catch fish (cichlids).


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Strange Japanese Sea Creatures

At the bottom of Japan's Suruga Bay lie strange and exotic creatures, including spider crabs (largest crabs in the world), chimeras and lantern sharks.

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Stand By Me - Sung and Played all over the World (Playing For Change)

Stand By Me sung and played beautifully by unknown street artists from all around the world. From the documentary "Playing For Change", which is about undiscovered musicians.

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1.2 The economics of water

Water has traditionally been regarded as a free resource in the sense that there is nothing to stop anybody collecting their own supply of water from rainfall. Even water from the public supply is very cheap. Although sand and gravel only cost around £12 a tonne in the UK in 2004 (Argles, 2005), the average of £0.80 per tonne (a cubic metre) for supply of mains water in England and Wales is even cheaper. However, some regions of the world are less fortunate. For example, in Kuwait most fres
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5 Nuclear energy

Einstein's famous equation E = mc2 shows that mass (m) and energy (E) are proportional to one another. The constant c2 linking the two is the square of the speed of light c (3 × 108 m s−1). Implicit in the equat
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • understand more about the science that underlies the development of genetically modified organisms and in particular how gene transfer is brought about;

  • know something of the potential benefits and uncertainties associated with gene transfer and the high levels of technical ingenuity involved;

  • be better able to understand the science that underpins the development of Golden Rice and understand why the u
    Author(s): The Open University

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7.4 Proteomics

Traditionally, the study of the biochemistry or structure of a protein necessitated its purification to a high degree. The development of protocols for cloning, manipulation and expression of genes greatly facilitated this kind of study, as will be clear to you from the previous section. In recent years, a number of high-throughput techniques have, to an extent, obviated traditional approaches and permit simultaneous analysis of all the expressed proteins in a cell or organism, known as the <
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7.3.1 Library-based methods for demonstrating an interaction between proteins

As well as the biochemical approaches to studying protein–protein interactions, there is a variety of qualitative methods for screening ‘libraries’ of cloned genes or gene fragments whose protein products might interact with a protein of interest. Such an approach has the advantage that the genes that encode those proteins that bind are available immediately for expression, facilitating subsequent analysis of the protein.

The two-hybrid system uses transcriptional activity
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2.5 Summary of Section 2

  1. A newly synthesised polypeptide can undergo a number of modifications and adjustments before it has the structure and activity of a mature functional protein. Some proteins require non-protein components, termed cofactors, for their function.

  2. A newly synthesised polypeptide undergoes rapid initial folding. Fine-tuning of the conformation is much slower and is often facilitated by specialised proteins called chaperones.

  3. Covalent
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5.1 Introduction

There are several types of diabetes, including two that are common: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 2 is the most common sort of diabetes. Worldwide, about 90 per cent of people with diabetes have Type 2 and about 10 per cent have Type 1. The other sorts of diabetes account for very small numbers of people.


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1.3.3 Position–time graphs

Tables do not give a very striking impression of how one thing varies with respect to another. A visual form of presentation, such as a graph, is usually much more effective. This is evident from Figure 7, which shows the graph obtained by plotting the data in Table 2 and then drawing a smooth curve through the resulting points.

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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

Figure 1 Dr J Durst, Schonenberg, Switzerland;

Figure 7 Courtesy of SOHO. SOHO is aproject of international cooperation between ESA and NASA;

Figure 8 US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration;

Figure 13 © The Royal Astronomical Society;

Figu
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Introduction

Both vitamins and minerals are essential in the diet in small quantities.The term ‘vitamin’ was not coined until early in the 20th century, to describe those chemicals in food without which a pattern of deficiency symptoms (often called a deficiency syndrome) occurs. Minerals, also called mineral elements, are those elements other than carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen that are found in the body.

This unit looks at the two main groups of vitamins: the fat-soluble vitamins A, D,
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3.5 Conclusions

The contemporary context for science communication is changing as policy initiatives introduce options for dialogue and consultation between science and society. At the same time, new communications technologies are being introduced that facilitate novel science communication activities. These new technologies, which exist alongside well-established channels for science communication, mean that scientific knowledge has the potential to be visible to a wide range of audiences. Those audiences
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Optional reading

Debates about the relationship between science, citizenship and democracy continue to influence public policies related to science communication and public engagement in science. In part, these debates involve discussions about scientific and other ways of knowing. For an introduction to these issues, see Irwin (1999).

This premise, of exchanging information and learning from others, is also relevant to your communication with other expert scientists. As a research student you will lear
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1.9.1 Moving around the rock cycle

One way of illustrating the possible ways of moving material around the rock cycle is to draw a diagram that places the processes into their geological contexts. Since the rock cycle involves processes occurring on the Earth's surface and also within its interior, we use a cross-section through the Earth's crust and uppermost mantle to do this, as shown in Author(s): The Open University

5.2 Neural ageing: article 1

Now read Neural Ageing Article 1: Concar, D. (2001) ‘Forever young’, New Scientist, 171, pp. 26–27.

Click to view 'Concar article'