1.1 Popular conceptions about addiction and neural ageing

First of all, consider the following statements found in popular information media:

  • Some addictions are in the mind, like that to shopping, gambling or the internet, whereas others are in the body, like an addiction to heroin, alcohol or food.

  • Once you have tried cannabis, you are hooked for life. The craving for cannabis will never go away.

  • The thinking patterns of an addicted brain can never be changed.

  • Sm
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2.4 Other spectrographs

Although the simple, single-slit spectrograph described above is the type you are most likely to find on a small telescope, there are other more complex designs available. Each of these has its own role to play in astronomical observations.

An echelle spectrograph has a second dispersing element, either a second grating or a prism, which disperses the light at right angles to the direction of dispersion produced by the main grating. Without going into details, the effect is to pr
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2.1.1 Prisms and the refraction of light

The simplest way to disperse light is to use a prism. When light enters a prism, it is no longer travelling in a vacuum, and its speed decreases. If the incident wavefront is travelling at an angle to the surface of the prism, which is easy to arrange because of its angled faces, then the propagation of the part of the wavefront in the prism is retarded, thus bending the wavefront and changing its direction of propagation through the prism (Author(s): The Open University

1.7 Summary of Section 1 and questions

  • Converging lenses or mirrors cause parallel beams of light to be brought to a focus at the focal point, situated at a distance of one focal length beyond the lens or one focal length in front of the mirror. Diverging lenses or mirrors cause parallel beams of light to diverge as if emanating from the focal point of the lens or mirror. Light paths are reversible, so a converging lens or mirror may also act as a collimator and
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1.6 Conclusion

This unit has presented an overview of the ways in which organisms living in temperate habitats are adapted to survive the winter. The unit has shown how a limited set of environmental changes associated with the onset of winter can lead to a diversity of adaptations and therefore a large diversity of species.

On the basis of the examples discussed in this unit, we can identify four factors that contribute to the diversity of adaptive strategies for coping with winter.

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1.2.1 The molecular level

It is common knowledge that the freezing point of pure water is 0°C. Often, however, the temperature of water can fall below 0°C without it freezing, for two reasons:

  1. Any solvent containing a dissolved substance has a lower freezing point than when pure, which is why the sea freezes at a lower temperature than clean freshwater.

  2. The occurrence of supercooling, the phenomenon by which a fluid remains liquid at a temperature below
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1.3 The very early Universe

Time: <10−36 s

Temperature: >1028 K

Energy: >3 × 1015 GeV (i.e. >3 × 1024 eV)

At the very earliest times in the history of the Universe, we can only presume that a superunification of the four interactions was in operation. Unfortunately, no reliable theory of superunification is yet available, so nothing can be said about the contents or behaviour of the Universe in its earliest moments. Indeed,
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Acknowledgements

Unit Image

Courtesy of banlon  1964:

All other materials included in this unit are derived from content originated at the Open University.


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2.9 (v) Private Members' Bills

Individual Members of Parliament have the power to introduce their own legislation known as a Private Members' Bill. An example of a successful Private Members' Bill which became law is the Marriage Act 1994 introduced by Gyles Brandreth who was MP for Chester at the time. This Act allows people to marry in any registered place, not just a Register Office or religious building. Private Members' Bills may be the result of an MP being approached for support for a proposal put forward by particu
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Law making in the House of Commons and House of Lords

One of the main functions of both Houses of Parliament is to discuss, debate and pass new laws. Laws made by Parliament are called Acts of Parliament. Acts of Parliament are also known as statutes or legislation. These terms all mean the same thing and will be used interchangeably throughout this unit.

Acts of Parliament may originate in various ways:

  1. party manifestos

  2. national emergency, crisis or new development


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Acknowledgements

SPECIAL RESTRICTIONS – THIS UNIT MAY NOT BE ALTERED. SEE CREATIVE COMMONS LICENCE.

The materials for this unit (W223) Company law in context have been made available by The College of Law for use in OpenLearn under a Creative Commons Attribution-non-commercial-No-Derivative Works 2.0 licence. This means that the materials may be used with acknowledgement to The College of Law for non-commercial purposes only and may not be altered or adapted in any way without prior permissio
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3.4.2 Key characteristics of a partnership

In Part B, Section 2, we noted some of the key characteristics of being a sole trader. You may wish to briefly review that section before proceeding, as in the remaining activities in Part B, we will consider those same characteristics in the context of a partnership. First, we will look at those characteristics which give rise to issues as between the partners themse
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3.2 The evolution of the EU

The EU has grown out of a series of intergovernmental political initiatives which have been expressed in a number of treaties. These treaties form the building blocks that give authority and power to the institutions and law-making bodies of the EU. The process is evolutionary, as treaties are reviewed and amended to reflect both the changing membership and the vision of the EU.

The EU is founded on several treaties:

  1. The treaty that established
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Introduction

This unit includes reading and writing activities that are geared to developing the use of memory, observation and the senses. The aim is to develop your perceptual abilities, honing your capacity to see detail in the world. You will be encouraged to start seeing the familiar in a new way and to make good use of your own personal history.

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University courseAuthor(s): The Open University

3.2 Orientability

The idea of orientability is another fundamental concept that we need for the study of surfaces. To illustrate the underlying idea, we consider two familiar surfaces – a cylinder and a Möbius band.

We can distinguish between a cylinder and a Möbius band by noticing that every cylinder has an ‘inside’ and an ‘outside’, as shown in Author(s): The Open University

How to Improve Your Grammar
Don’t be intimidated by the complexity of English grammar; take it one step at a time and you’ll be fine. (01:12)
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Introduction

Sixty-five million years ago, animal and plant life were very different from nowadays, but there were rat-sized placental mammals living successfully on the ground. They were insect eaters, i.e. insectivores, feeding on the vast numbers of insects and other invertebrates living in soil, leaf litter and low-lying vegetation. Insectivore means 'insect eater', and in this course we will explore the world of insect-eating mammals, classified together on the basis of a reasonably close evolutionar
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Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Radio Lingua Network News: 26 September 2008
Happy European Day of Languages to all our listeners! By way of joining in this international celebration of languages and language-learning we're delighted to introduce eight new podcasts today. We're adding Catalan, Danish, French, Japanese, Mandarin and Romanian to our One Minute Languages series; we're introducing our first podcast for English learners - Write Back Soon will help learners master Phrasal Verbs; and we're finally announcing the long-awaited sequel to Coffee Break Spanish: it's
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Reuters Breakingviews: Japan's post-election policy struggle
Dec. 13 - Should the opposition win Japan's elections, Breakingviews' Andy Mukherjee believes leader Shinzo Abe's target of 3 percent inflation won't be easy, and getting the central bank on side will be key.
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Introduction

In this course, we look at the roles that are taken when working with young people. We focus on what those working with young people actually do, starting with some analysis of roles. We show that, in the context of work with young people, the term is more than simply a statement about who does what: it also says something about the kinds of relationships we form with young people and the values we bring to our work. We then move on to discuss roles in relation to the ‘bigger pictur
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Copyright © 2016 The Open University