3.1 ‘Race’, ethnicity and communication

As noted in the Introduction, much of the debate about difference and diversity in health and social care has focused on issues of ‘race’ and ethnicity. It is perhaps the area that first comes to mind when there is discussion about issues of communication and difference in care services, but it is also an area where the arguments are most complex and contentious.

As you saw in Section 1, ‘racial’ or ethnic diversity has often been constructed as a ‘problem’ for health and so
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2.4 The social construction of ‘difference’

Social constructionists take issue with psychological accounts of human behaviour, criticising them for making universal generalisations and for having too great a focus on the individual. By contrast, a social constructionist approach sees behaviour as shaped by social context, and by issues of power and knowledge.

Those arguing from a critical social perspective would criticise essentialist accounts of difference for several reasons. First, they would argue that there is a danger of m
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Planning an evaluation

The evaluation should have clear aims and objectives. It is also helpful to decide where its boundaries should lie – how much or how little is to be evaluated?

Activity 4

0 hours 20 minutes

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2.2 Introducing the Durrants

The Arthur and Lynne case study

We will be focusing on a single case study, about Arthur and Lynne Durrant. This enables us to explore some broad questions about care, carers and caring which might be quite boring and divorced from real life if they were presented in the abstract
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1 Caring: a family affair

Dream parents

Mummy would love me, daddy would too,

We'd go out on picnics or off to the zoo,

We would play in the park and feed the birds,

Listen to their songs and imagine their words.

My life would be full of joy and laughter,

All because they cared, my mother and father,

Never would I feel all cold and alone,

Knowing that I could always go h
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this course:

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7.1 Payments received

Diane Mallett said she didn't get any payment, though she used to get Invalid Care Allowance (ICA) when her mother-in-law was alive. Her brother-in-law, Paul, only got the lower level of Disablility Living Allowance. Diane pointed out that, if he'd been assessed before she intervened, he might have got a higher amount. John Avery said that Mr Asghar got Attendance Allowance. He thought he wouldn't be able to get Invalid Care Allowance, as this would affect his benefits.

Enid Francis' so
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6.3 The role of oxygen in sports performance

The body uses oxygen in a chemical process that produces fuel for the muscles. You might think that the transfer of oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body is vitally important for all athletes. However, you might be surprised to hear that although this process is important in many sports, it doesn't matter very much at all in quite a few. The reason for this is fairly straightforward: the transfer of oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body takes time. In events that don't
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5.4 Finding your own arteries and veins

Figure 10
Figure 10 A forearm showing veins – a neck showing carotid arter
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4 Gaynor and Liz comment on Anne's situation

Activity 4

In this final clip, you will Gayor and Liz talk about their views on Anne's situation. Listen to their comments and add any additional points to the notes you began in the previous section.

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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • give examples of assessment by health or social care workers.


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2.1.3 Angela Yih

Figure 2
Angela Yih

Angela Yih was working for Age Concern Scotland,
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References

Airhihenbuwa, C.O. (1995) Health and Culture: Beyond the Western paradigm, London, Sage.
Antonovsky, A. (1984) ‘The sense of coherence as a determinant of health’, in Matarazzo, J.D. (ed.) Behavioural Health, New York, Wiley, pp. 114–29.
Antonovsky, A. (1987) Unravelling the Mystery of Health: How people manage stress and stay well, California, Josse
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4.1 Introduction

As we said at the beginning of the last section, much of the impetus in earlier work on lay perspectives was to examine how far they deviated from the ‘true’ knowledge of experts. Now the emphasis has changed and there is a move to try to understand lay knowledge in order to inform expert knowledge, and in the process the distinction is increasingly being questioned. As Bury notes, the ‘opposition between the world of patients and doctors has been a major theme in medical sociology’ (
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3.4 Health and children

So far, all the studies we have discussed have been based on adults. Health viewed through children's eyes is receiving attention, mainly in order to be able to target health promotion messages. Bendelow and Pridmore (1998) interviewed 100 nine and 10-year-olds in three primary schools in urban and rural areas of south-west England. As well as having discussions with the children, they asked the children to draw pictures to convey their views. Their results are quoted in Box 2.


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3.3 Health and ethnicity

Clearly ethnicity, religion and culture have a great deal of influence on the way people view health. It was noted in the introduction to Section 2 that most of the early work was on health beliefs and that it was anthropological, focusing on ‘other’ cultures. Britain is a multicultural, multiracial societ
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2 Accounting for health

Until relatively recently most of the information available to us about how people think about health and illness was concerned with non-Western societies. There was a time when a search in a good anthropological library in Britain would reveal more about the everyday health beliefs of the peoples of, say, African, Asian or South American countries than could be discovered about the everyday health beliefs of the people of the British Isles. Good (1994), in his book Medicine, Rationality a
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1.1 Introduction

We have suggested that health is everywhere so let's put that to the test. It certainly seems that you cannot pick up a newspaper, listen to the radio or watch TV without sooner or later encountering a feature on health. We have been told by government that health is now ‘everybody’s business’ – it is no longer purely the preserve of health professionals. Health is also big business. It sells magazines and margarine – a whole range of products come with a health promise and one or t
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2.2 Identity and identities

Self-identity

In the previous section we considered the importance of people’s individual biographies to an understanding of who they are. Such biographies play an important part in making us who we are. In this section we will explore some of the ideas that have contributed to social workers’ understanding of the concept and importance of ‘identity’. These ideas are all examples o
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2 Focusing on the individual

In this section you will be thinking about the individual people who are at the heart of the social work process – the service user and the social worker. Relationships between social workers and service users are integral to all social work interventions, whatever the area of social work practice. Being able to build relationships with service users and colleagues, maintain them and reflect honestly on them are central to social work practice. In this section we will be exploring some aspe
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