Introduction

This unit will help you understand the general issues of children's rights as well as exploring childhood and children's needs. It is also possible to link these ideas to the wider issue of the social construction of difference and power. The materials are primarily an audio file, originally 28 minutes in length and recorded in 1998.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Social policy: welfare, power and diversity (D218) which is no longer taught by The
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

4.6 Evaluating constructivism

Piaget's theory was revolutionary in many respects. It recognised that children thought differently to adults. The view that learning is an individual and constructive process differed sharply from the prevailing climate of behaviourism when it was published. However, the experimental tasks that Piaget used to establish his theory have been subjected to criticism. Subsequent research, most notably by Donaldson (1978), has shown that under certain conditions young children are able to operate
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

4.1 Genetic epistemology

Jean Piaget (1896–1980) was not primarily interested in child development, but in the nature of knowledge and how it could be seen as a form of adaptation to the environment. He described his work as genetic epistemology – the study of the origins and development of knowledge.

He argued that individuals develop progressively more elaborate and sophisticated mental representations of the environment, based on their own actions on the environment and the consequences of these. Thus he
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

Learning outcomes

On completion of this topic, you should be able to:

  • Discuss the ways in which children are the victims of violence and the multiple effects that violence has on children, encompassing not only physical pain and injury but also psychological damage.

  • Examine the various roles that children play in relation to violence, as victims, perpetrators, witnesses, colluders and peacemakers.

  • Analyse the relationship between children as victims of violence and a
    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

Kerstcontract : Voorblad
Kerstmis.JPG

In deze bijdrage vind je een voorblad van een contractwerk rond Kerstmis.


Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

Touchdown China: NFL looks East
Dec. 4 - The operator of one of America's favorite pastimes, the National Football League, looks to kick start its fortunes in the massive Chinese market. Jane Lanhee Lee reports.
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

The Earth spins at night
22 days of data from the Suomi NPP satellite went into making this beautiful and eerie view of the Earth at night, spinning in a black sky. The satellite can see in the visible and near-infrared at high sensitivity, able to map city lights, fires, and even moonlit weather. This animation is made from real images, mapped onto the previously existing Blue Marble images to make the view more realistic. Blog post with more info: http://www.slate.com/blogs/bad_astronomy/2012/12/05/animation_of_the_e
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

Beginner - Electric heater

Now that the winter is here, many people rush to buy electric heaters, and it does get cold in some Arab countries. Tune in to learn how to buy one to keep you warm and comfy in the cold winter times.


Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

News #170 - 10 Days of Epic Japanese Holiday Deals Start Midnight, Tonight
Missed out on the Black Friday and Cyber Monday deals at JapanesePod101.com? Bad news: those deals are gone. The good news? The JapanesePod101.com Holiday Countdown Party begins December 10th, 2012 with 10 days of the biggest and best Japanese learning gifts. Just 2 catches though: these deals last 24 hours each and you’ll only see [...]
Author(s): JapanesePod101.com

License information
Related content

Rights not set

U.S. Morning Call: M&A heats up for AIG, A123
Dec 10 - AIG agreed to sell nearly all of ILFC, the world's second-largest airplane leasing business, to a Chinese consortium, and China's Wanxiang Group won an auction for bankrupt battery maker A123 Systems.
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

Fishing crow using bread as bait

An intelligent hooded crow uses bread to lure and catch fish (cichlids).


Author(s): harvey

License information
Related content

Rights not set

Strange Japanese Sea Creatures

At the bottom of Japan's Suruga Bay lie strange and exotic creatures, including spider crabs (largest crabs in the world), chimeras and lantern sharks.

read more


Author(s): EduTube

License information
Related content

Rights not set

Stand By Me - Sung and Played all over the World (Playing For Change)

Stand By Me sung and played beautifully by unknown street artists from all around the world. From the documentary "Playing For Change", which is about undiscovered musicians.

read more


Author(s): harvey

License information
Related content

Rights not set

1.2 The economics of water

Water has traditionally been regarded as a free resource in the sense that there is nothing to stop anybody collecting their own supply of water from rainfall. Even water from the public supply is very cheap. Although sand and gravel only cost around £12 a tonne in the UK in 2004 (Argles, 2005), the average of £0.80 per tonne (a cubic metre) for supply of mains water in England and Wales is even cheaper. However, some regions of the world are less fortunate. For example, in Kuwait most fres
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

5 Nuclear energy

Einstein's famous equation E = mc2 shows that mass (m) and energy (E) are proportional to one another. The constant c2 linking the two is the square of the speed of light c (3 × 108 m s−1). Implicit in the equat
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • understand more about the science that underlies the development of genetically modified organisms and in particular how gene transfer is brought about;

  • know something of the potential benefits and uncertainties associated with gene transfer and the high levels of technical ingenuity involved;

  • be better able to understand the science that underpins the development of Golden Rice and understand why the u
    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

7.4 Proteomics

Traditionally, the study of the biochemistry or structure of a protein necessitated its purification to a high degree. The development of protocols for cloning, manipulation and expression of genes greatly facilitated this kind of study, as will be clear to you from the previous section. In recent years, a number of high-throughput techniques have, to an extent, obviated traditional approaches and permit simultaneous analysis of all the expressed proteins in a cell or organism, known as the <
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

7.3.1 Library-based methods for demonstrating an interaction between proteins

As well as the biochemical approaches to studying protein–protein interactions, there is a variety of qualitative methods for screening ‘libraries’ of cloned genes or gene fragments whose protein products might interact with a protein of interest. Such an approach has the advantage that the genes that encode those proteins that bind are available immediately for expression, facilitating subsequent analysis of the protein.

The two-hybrid system uses transcriptional activity
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

2.5 Summary of Section 2

  1. A newly synthesised polypeptide can undergo a number of modifications and adjustments before it has the structure and activity of a mature functional protein. Some proteins require non-protein components, termed cofactors, for their function.

  2. A newly synthesised polypeptide undergoes rapid initial folding. Fine-tuning of the conformation is much slower and is often facilitated by specialised proteins called chaperones.

  3. Covalent
    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

5.1 Introduction

There are several types of diabetes, including two that are common: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 2 is the most common sort of diabetes. Worldwide, about 90 per cent of people with diabetes have Type 2 and about 10 per cent have Type 1. The other sorts of diabetes account for very small numbers of people.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share