1.1 Introduction

Ratios crop up often in official statistics. The government wants the teacher–pupil ratio in schools to be increased to one teacher to thirty pupils or less. The birth rate has fallen: the ratio of children to women of child bearing age has gone down. It used to be 2.4 to 1, and now it is 1.9 to 1. Predictions for the ratio of working adults to retired adults is disturbing. Predictions are, that by 2030 the ratio will be two working adults to every retired person, instead of three to one no
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

4.2 Feminist perspectives: who counts as a refugee?

The UN Convention has a very narrow definition of a ‘refugee’, which does not ‘accommodate those people who are forced to leave their country of origin because of economic and/or social disruption caused by environmental, political or economic turmoil or war. These are precisely the reasons that propel most refugees from the underdeveloped South’ (Lewis, 2003, p. 327). If we examine this definition further through a feminist theoretical perspective, we can see how social policy operat
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

5.1 The linear model of communications

One of the key tasks of social marketers is to develop effective messages which provide individuals and organisations with the information required to achieve behavioural change. Communication represents the ‘transmission of information, ideas, attitudes, or emotion from one person or group to another’ (Fill, 2002, p. 31). There are many models and frameworks available to help with communications planning. First, an understanding of how communication works is illustrated in Author(s): The Open University

1.5.3 Looking forward: implications and possible consequences

But what are the implications of these developments and trends? Clearly the emergence of a strong east-Asian bond market could threaten both the US dollar and the Euro markets, but this development is still in its infancy, and there are significant political and economic differences of interest amongst the possible east-Asian participants in such a market. So for the time being it will be the Euro and the US dollar that hold centre stage. But in as much as the Euro becomes a stronger currency
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

3.2.1 Try some yourself

Activity 37

1.3 The very early Universe

Time: <10−36 s

Temperature: >1028 K

Energy: >3 × 1015 GeV (i.e. >3 × 1024 eV)

At the very earliest times in the history of the Universe, we can only presume that a superunification of the four interactions was in operation. Unfortunately, no reliable theory of superunification is yet available, so nothing can be said about the contents or behaviour of the Universe in its earliest moments. Indeed, it
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.4 Caring for the consequences

The Light reading is an extract from the first part of a longer paper in which he goes on to argue for a more pragmatic approach from environmental ethicists to complement their important work on theorising over intrinsic value. Here you need register only the concern expressed by Light that ethicists should focus more on the immediate consequences of their endeavours in terms of being able to shape policy and action.

In thinking about such effects, Light might be regarded as following
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

6.1 Why plan a piece of writing?

Planning is about creating a framework that will help you to make choices about what needs to be included in your assignment and what doesn't. Some people feel they don't need to plan: starting to write helps them know what it is they are going to say. If you recognise yourself here, we suggest you consider the points we raise in this section.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

3.12 References

Baume, D. (2016) ‘Writing and using good learning outcomes’, Leeds Beckett University. Available at http://eprints.leedsbeckett.ac.uk/ 2837/ 1/ Learning_Outcomes.pdf (accessed 08 June 2017).

Cann, A. (2014) ‘Engagi
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

15.301 Managerial Psychology Laboratory (MIT)
We function in our personal and professional lives based on knowledge and intuitions. Our intuition that we know a lot is very powerful. But sometimes intuitions are accurate and sometimes they are not; without research, it is hard to tell. This course combines a few different goals: develop a critical eye for making inferences from data; be able to carry out simple data analysis; learn about managerial psychology; develop interesting new questions about managerial psychology and test these ques
Author(s): Ariely, Dan

License information
Related content

Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative C

2.6.1 The phenomenological perspective

The term ‘phenomenology’ is a good example of polysemy, as it has different meanings according to the academic context in which it is found. There are scientific phenomenology and philosophical phenomenology, for example, and the sociologists Ken Thompson and Kath Woodward describe phenomenology as, ‘The development in sociology of a philosophical approach which focuses on people’s consciousness of their experiences and how they interpret the world; the meaning it has for them’ (Tho
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2013 The Open University

4.1 Articulating your appreciation of complexity

I have organised the material in this section so that you can follow the activity route shown in Figure 36.

This section is primarily concerned with what can be understood by the term complexity, and how to compare it with the ideas of difficulty and mess you may
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2013 The Open University

Economics and the Cultivation of Virtue | Lecture 3. Cultivating the Virtues of Globalization [Audi
Speaker(s): Professor Jeffrey D. Sachs | In his 2017 Robbins Lectures, Professor Jeffrey D. Sachs will argue for a new Moral Economics built firmly on the foundations of the new moral sciences. The goal of moral economics is to promote wellbeing. A core principle is the cultivation of individual and group virtue to help guide the behavior of both individuals and groups in the global society. Lecture 3. Cultivating the Virtues of Globalization. Global society is at once deeply interconnected and
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

4.4 O is for Objectivity

One of the characteristics of 'good' information is that it should be balanced and present both sides of an argument or issue. This way the reader is left to weigh up the evidence and make a decision. In reality, we recognise that no information is truly objective.

This means that the onus is on you, the reader, to develop a critical awareness of the positions represented in what you read, and to take account of this when you interpret the information. In some cases, authors may be expl
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

References

American College of Sports Medicine (2006) ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription (7th edn), London, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
Pollock, M.L., Gaesser, G.A., Butcher, J.D., Després, J.P., Dishman, R.K., Franklin, B.A. and Ewing Garber, C. (1998) ‘ACSM position stand: The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, a
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Middle School Portal: Math and Science Pathways (MSP2)
The Liberty Science Center and the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services present this new Web siteexamining the tobacco plant from seed to cigarette. The site is full of information on all aspects of tobacco, from how it is grown and how cigarettes are manufactured to health effects of smoking and the science behind nicotine addiction. The site is well-organized with detailed information written for a general audience; almost anyone can learn something of interest by visiting.
Author(s): Creator not set

License information
Related content

Rights not set

Middle School Portal: Math and Science Pathways (MSP2)
The Liberty Science Center and the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services present this new Web siteexamining the tobacco plant from seed to cigarette. The site is full of information on all aspects of tobacco, from how it is grown and how cigarettes are manufactured to health effects of smoking and the science behind nicotine addiction. The site is well-organized with detailed information written for a general audience; almost anyone can learn something of interest by visiting.
Author(s): Creator not set

License information
Related content

Rights not set

ThinkQuest: Nutrition for Kids
A ThinkQuest international competition winner, Nutrition for Kids was created by a team of three fifth grade students to educate children about good nutrition. The website offers basic, straightforward information about nutrition in a variety of formats including a chart on Nutrients and their Functions, a diagram of the Food Pyramid, Sample Menus, and a section entitled, Foods You Should Eat. The site also offers a few References and nutrition-related websites as well as a short feature on Engl
Author(s):

License information
Related content

Rights not set

ThinkQuest: Nutrition for Kids
A ThinkQuest international competition winner, Nutrition for Kids was created by a team of three fifth grade students to educate children about good nutrition. The website offers basic, straightforward information about nutrition in a variety of formats including a chart on Nutrients and their Functions, a diagram of the Food Pyramid, Sample Menus, and a section entitled, Foods You Should Eat. The site also offers a few References and nutrition-related websites as well as a short feature on Engl
Author(s):

License information
Related content

Rights not set

Daily Lesson Plan : redefining Addiction
The New York Times Learning Network offers a lesson plan to complement a recent article on the biology of drug addiction. The lesson plan, designed for grades 6-12, helps students learn about how addiction can have both physiological and behavioral effects. Students then apply what they learn in developing a training session for counselors working with drug-addicted teenagers. Discussion questions, vocabulary, Web links, and extension activity ideas are all included.
Author(s):

License information
Related content

Rights not set