6.2.3 Groups

The large group portrait came to commercial prominence in the 1880s, probably as a result of the widespread introduction of dry plate negatives. These negatives could be bought ready made over the counter. They did not require immediate processing and they reduced exposure times significantly. The group portrait involved the production of a single negative and a potential sale to each member of the group. Customer costs were kept low without injury to the photographer's profits. School, work
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6.2.2 Informational content

Obviously for the purpose of historical record, portraits taken in the context of the family home can be more informative than those taken inside the studio with its make-believe settings.

Activity 24

Compare the
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6.1 The rise of the itinerant photographer

Happily, not all early family photographs were taken inside conventional studios. Sitters were frequently photographed in the open air or in temporary, makeshift studios. Portraits were taken in the street, at the fairground, at the seaside, at local beauty spots and in the parks and commons where town dwellers went for relaxation and entertainment on Sundays and holidays. Itinerant photographers who worked these venues would set up shop for the day, the week or longer, depending on situation
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Activity 3

Various stock types of difficult sitter recur in the literature. Painters, of course, posed the biggest threat. Other difficult customers included those accompanying sitters: the gentleman with the lady, the mother with the child, the owner with the pet.

Activity 3a

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3.5 The language of law

A potential barrier to understanding, which those new to law can find off-putting, is the use of specialist terminology. This contributes to the perception of law as an elitist and difficult area of study and is something that requires further explanation. Many professions (and social groups) develop their own forms of language to communicate effectively and, in some cases, to signify group membership. In this sense legal language is not unique, but is does have a formal character which can s
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1.2 Continuity and change

Religions generally go to a great deal of trouble to stress how consistent, how changeless, how solid they are, but change is, in fact, an observable and constant factor in religion. At a personal level, for example, older Catholics who grew up having to eat fish on Friday and ‘knowing’ that cremation was forbidden to them are aware of that. Such ‘unchanging certainties’ have changed a great deal over the years. It is therefore useful to look both at how a religion develops over time
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2.3 Conclusion

As I warned you, it has been necessary to introduce here a fair amount of technical detail on North Indian music. You will not need to remember all of this – indeed, apart from a little basic terminology (such as rag and tal), some instrument names (tabla, tanpura) and the name of this genre (khyal), you may not come across any of these terms again in this course. What I hope you will remember is what this has taught you about the way North Indian art music is put together, and what this te
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2.2 Notation

The next thing to consider is the role of notation in this tradition. At one point on the video you saw Veena Sahasrabuddhe singing from a printed notation, from a collection first published in the first quarter of the twentieth century by the famous Indian musicologist Pt V.N. Bhatkhande (originally in the Marathi language, this is now best know in its Hindi translation in volume 5 of Bhatkhande, 1987). Actually, she did this at our request – she would not normally sing from notation, but
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • discuss different perspectives on the creation of music, in particular, composition and improvisation

  • understand the basic principles underlying North Indian art music

  • understand the basic principles underlying Sundanese gamelan music.


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Mergers and Acquisitions
Why do Mergers and acquisitions happen? What are the factors that motivate companies to buy sell and incorporate other organisations? In these uncertain economic times it is of paramount importance for companies to be able to weather financial instability while maintaining a profitable business model. It has become common place in the modern business world to observe the union of two separate or even different businesses but what are the reasons behind these partnerships and how do they benefit
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Online market research
How has the arrival of the internet changed the nature of marketing research? Can doing market research with online participants be as effective as with real people? Every company knows good market research is a key factor in getting an advantage over their competitors, knowing specific information about target demographics can be essential for a company’s success. In recent years the internet has revolutionised the way in which modern companies collect and gather data but can these contempora
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International management: An institutional perspective
It is common for managers and firms to highlight the difference culture makes to business and management. However, arguably more important are the differences between countries in the social, political, economic and legal institutions that enable and underpin business activity. This free course, International management: An institutional perspective, takes a research-based look at the differences around the world in how capitalism is practised and the practical difference this makes to managers
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The business of football
Welcome to this free course, The business of football, produced by The Open University working in partnership with The English Football League Trust. If you are fascinated by football and interested in discovering more about business and management, then this engaging and stimulating course, which provides the opportunity to share and comment on your learning with others, is for you. You can progress at your own pace over 3 to 5 weeks, and it will take a minimum of around 9 hours of your time ov
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2.1 Accounting rules and reality

In a seminal article, Hines (1988) demonstrates that when we draw up accounting rules, we determine what view of reality we present. At its simplest, if we decide that internally-generated intangibles should not be measured, we also determine that a whole class of assets owned by a company is not part of the picture given by the balance sheet, and therefore the ‘reality’ that the balance sheet is supposed to reflect is shaped by our decision on the accounting rules.

Those who make t
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1.6 Imperialism

Related to the idea of transferring regulation across borders, is the influence of colonial tradition and of trade relations. The European colonisers, notably the UK and France, transferred their accounting rules to their colonies, so that Singapore, for example, had the same rules as Cyprus and Nigeria (Walton, 1986), while Cameroon shared rules with Lebanon, Vietnam and Guadeloupe, amongst others.

Modern academic notions of ‘imperialism’ include the idea of economic domination, an
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1.3 Managing the national economy

The earliest regulation in Europe was not motivated by stewardship concerns, but was aimed at small businesses whose owners did not take the trouble to measure the success of their business. Consequently they went into liquidation, often, as is the case with small business networks, taking other businesses down with them. The 1673 Savary Ordonnance in France, which is regarded as the first national accounting rule created in the world and was subsequently taken up into the French Comme
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Activity 9: Go shopping with Geert Hofstede

Allow 60 minutes for this activity.

In the last few activities you have been exploring Hofstede's ideas. I now want to focus specifically on an issue which has already cropped up a couple of times. This is the impact that national culture has on organisations. One of Hofstede's main arguments is that it is important for business organisations to adapt their approaches to different national contexts.

Take the example of shopping. Income is an important influence on the thing
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Activity 8: Exploring cultural dimensions on Hofstede's website

Allow 60 minutes for this activity.

You have now explored how different people can have different perceptions and how national culture may be one reason why this is the case. You have spent some time too looking at one explanation of national culture and the differences between countries. Hofstede's ideas are quite complex and, for this reason, this activity is an opportunity for you to consolidate your understanding of Geert Hofstede's research.

In this activity you will d
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1.1 The transition from planning to action

In working on a project, it is sometimes difficult to make the transition from planning to action. It usually falls to the manager, as leader of the project, to make sure that activities are started; but not before it is clear who should carry out which tasks, and when. The first step for the project manager is to ensure that the plan is communicated to those who will be working on the project. It is not always safe to assume that others will understand the plan or its implications, particula
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7 Conclusion

This course aimed to answer four key questions about social marketing:

  1. Why is a social marketing approach relevant and necessary in today's environment?

  2. How can an understanding of consumer/human behaviour help to develop appropriate actions and interventions?

  3. Who are the target markets for social marketing programmes?

  4. What is the role of marketing communications and branding in achieving behavioural
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