1 Precursors?

World War I has a claim to being called the first industrialised war in the sense that, for the first time, the full power of industrial technology was deployed in concentrated ways on the battlefields. During the Second World War, what might be termed industrialised mass killing was employed for the first time – not on the battlefields but in specially designated areas behind the battle fronts. The perpetrators were directed by educated men, little different socially from the bureaucrats i
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References

Baird, J.D. and Ryskamp, C. (eds) (1980–95) The Poems of William Cowper, 3 vols, Oxford, Clarendon Press.
Baxter, J. (1974) ‘The great Yorkshire revival 1792–6: a study of mass revival among the Methodists’, in M. Hill (ed.) A Sociological Yearbook of Religion in Britain, 4, pp.46–76.
Belsham, T. (1798) A Review of Mr Wilberforce's Treatise, Lond
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9 Metre

As we have seen, scansion is the act of mapping out stress patterns in order to ascertain the metre (rhythm). In the accentual-syllabic system, the dominant tradition in English, both accents (stresses) and syllables are measured and counted. In accentual metre, the stresses are counted and the syllables can vary. In syllabic metre, the syllables are counted, while the stresses can vary.

Here is pentameter, the line of fi
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References

Avramides, A. (1997) ‘Intention and Convention’, in C. Wright and B. Hale (eds) A Companion to the Philosophy of Language, Oxford, Blackwell.
Blackburn, S. (1984) Spreading the Word: Groundings in the Philosophy of Language, Oxford, Clarendon Press.
Carroll, L.(1893) ‘Through the looking-glass and what Alice found there’, in Alice’s Adventures in Won
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2.11 Further reading

Grice's writing on the philosophy of language, including the 1957 paper ‘Meaning’, is collected in Grice 1989. Discussion of the issues raised in ‘Meaning’ can be found in Avramides 1997 (the most accessible), Blackburn 1984, Miller 1998, and Taylor 1998. A defence of the Gricean Programme can be found in Schiffer 1972, later retracted in Schiffer 1987. Searle's position is developed at length in Searle 1969.


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2.2 An initial exploration

To begin your own exploration of the Classical world, you will first read the introduction to the book of essays, Experiencing the Classical World. It has been written not only to introduce the essays in the book, but also to introduce you to some of the fundamentals of Classical Studies.

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References

Bell, Julia and Magrs, Paul (eds) (2001) The Creative Writing Coursebook, London: Macmillan, pp.75–8.
Neale, Derek (2012) The Book of Guardians, London: Salt.
Neale, Derek (1995) ‘The Barber's Victim’ in Raconteur, Graham Lord (ed.), No.6, London: Raconteur Publications.
Perry, Donna (ed.) (1993) Backtal
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2 The word ‘freedom’

The word ‘freedom’ can have powerful emotive force, that is, the power to arouse strong emotions. Its connotations are almost exclusively positive. If you describe a group as ‘freedom fighters’ this suggests that you approve of the cause for which they are fighting; call them ‘terrorists’ and you make clear your disapproval.

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3 A comparison of attitudes

It is, indeed, instructive to compare the attitude of the people to imperialism in both these nation states during the final decade of the nineteenth century. Clearly, although there are surface similarities in the situation, the historical tradition of both countries respecting empire in fact determined to a great extent responses to imperialism. It was possible to speak of imperialism and the empire with pride in Britain. The United States denied its empire and its imperial ambitions. When
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Estimating the cost of equity
This free course, Estimating the cost of equity, looks at how to estimate the cost of equity using the dividend valuation model (DVM) and the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), and how to evaluate the use of the DVM and the CAPM from a financial and strategic perspective. It then explores the implications regarding selection of the inputs to the DVM and CAPM and assesses the implications of using the beta measure in the CAPM.Author(s): Creator not set

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Implementing the project
Day-to-day monitoring of a project is essential to ensure that work is progressing according to the plan, and it will often be necessary to review and revise the plan as circumstances change. This free course, Implementing the project, will introduce some of the key techniques that help managers to monitor and control projects, and consider what approaches work best in particular circumstances.Author(s): Creator not set

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References

Brassington, F. and Pettitt, S. (2000) Principles of Marketing, 2nd edn, England, Pearson Education Limited.
Christopher, M., Payne, A. F. T. and Ballantyne, D. (1991) Relationship Marketing: Bringing quality, customer service and marketing together, Oxford, Butterworth Heinemann.
Curtis, J. (2000) ‘A clear view of CRM’, Marketing Direct, No. 50, pp. 4
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Keep on learning

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3.3 Implications of market orientation

An organisation that develops and performs its production and marketing activities with the aim of satisfying the needs of its customers is market oriented. However, using market-led ideas in the non-profit sector requires a fundamental shift in organisational philosophy. Identifying those people who add value to the service means renaming some users ‘customers’. It also means that you have to establish what they want before you begin the planning processes and you have to concede
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Keep on learning

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5 Conclusion

In a financial context, risk is a synonym for uncertainty – the possibility that the actual outcome will differ from the mean expected outcome. It is therefore a neutral rather than a negative concept. Investors are risk-averse in the sense that they require more return for taking on more risk. Risk itself is measured by the standard deviation of actual returns around the mean expectation. In the real world, investment risk is created by a number of different factors that affect the certain
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3.4 Variability of income

This applies to investments where the return is defined in generic terms but the actual amount of the return may fluctuate in an unpredictable manner. As we have seen, the most obvious example is the company share, but there are others, such as debt instruments (such as many bank deposits) where there is a contractual right to interest but the interest rate fluctuates according to some formula – or even simply at the whim of the bank! An important example of this type of security is the Flo
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3.3 Liquidity

Borrowers prefer to have the use of funds for as long as possible, while investors generally prefer to be able to get their money back as soon as possible. A major function of the financial markets, and of the stock market in particular, is to reconcile these conflicting requirements. The stock market enables shareholders and bondholders to realise their investment independently of the company by selling their holdings to other investors. This is called the secondary capital market, to distin
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1.2 Are investors risk-averse?

We will define ‘risk premium’ as an extra reward required by investors to compensate for perceived uncertainty in the amount or timing of an expected return.

But do investors in fact require an extra premium for uncertainty, or is this perhaps just a convenient assumption?

The following activity is designed to give you an opportunity to test your own reactions.


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5.5 Social pressures which affect our decision making

Broadly, there are three kinds of social pressure which affect how we make decisions:

  • coercive

  • mimetic

  • normative.

We look at these in more detail below.


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