Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • describe and comment on the main features of a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of stars in general, and of stars in a cluster;

  • outline a broad model of stellar evolution based on the observed properties of large numbers of stars, and describe how stars of different initial mass might evolve;

  • describe the effects of interstellar material on starlight, and outline some of the processes by which such material
    Author(s): The Open University

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4.3 Calcium (Ca)

About 40% of the total mineral mass of bones is calcium, making it the most abundant mineral in the body. In bone, it is combined with phosphorus, as well as oxygen and hydrogen, in a mineral compound called hydroxyapatite. Calcium is also present in the fluids in the body, and there it occurs in the form of dissolved ions. An ion is an atom that carries a very small electrical charge, which can be either positive (+) or negative (−), depending on the ion.

You may recall from our stud
Author(s): The Open University

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4.1 Introduction to minerals and why we need them

Both vitamins and minerals are essential in the diet in small quantities and so they are often grouped together as micronutrients.

Activity 24

Which items in the diet are classified as macronutrients?

Author(s): The Open University

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Introduction

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course Human genetics and health issues (SK195)

In this unit you will learn how advances in genetics could change the way in which diseases are diagnosed and managed. The advent of predictive medicine, based on more detailed DNA profiling of individual genotypes using technologies like gene chips, rather than screening for
Author(s): The Open University

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1.5.2 Sedimentary processes

Sedimentary grains are formed when the rocks at the Earth's surface are slowly broken up physically by exposure to wind and frost, and decomposed (chemically) by rainwater or biological action. These processes are collectively termed weathering. Once a rock has been broken up by weathering, the small rock fragments and individual mineral grains can be eroded from their place of origin by water, wind or glaciers and transported to be deposited elsewhere as roughly horizontal layers of sediment
Author(s): The Open University

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1.3 Minerals and rocks

To begin with, it is necessary to explain the meanings of the two terms ‘minerals’ and ‘rocks’.


Author(s): The Open University

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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • explain the difference between a mineral and a rock;

  • describe the textural differences between igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks;

  • account for these differences in terms of the processes that produce these rocks;

  • classify igneous rocks according to their grain size and mineralogical composition;

  • recognise the difference between a body fossil and a trace fossil;

    <
    Author(s): The Open University

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The Nature Explorers South Mogollon Rim Part 5 of 11
By: thenatureexplorers With elevations ranging from 5000 feet with a Chihuahuan Desert ecosystem to mixed conifers at 9000 feet, the South Mogollon Rim is comprised of many diverse species of plants and animals from ducks to lizards.
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Learning from the Patient's Perspective: A View from A Patient with Sickle Cell Disease

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Dec. 18 - With one of the busiest holiday travel seasons of the year about to begin, air traffic control procedures are set to receive a 21st century face lift. Aircraft industry giant Boeing is in the final stages of testing out a new system that gives airplanes tailor-made landing paths, a technology they say will decrease airlines delays and cut harmful fuel emissions significantly. Jane Ross reports.
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