2.1 Chemical periodicity

The chemistry of the elements is immensely varied. But amidst that variety there are patterns, and the best known and most useful is chemical periodicity: if the elements are laid out in order of atomic number, similar elements occur at regular intervals.

The discovery of chemical periodicity is particularly associated with the nineteenth-century Russian chemist Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeléev (Figure 16). The periodicity is represented graphically by Periodic Tables. Author(s): The Open University

5.1 Arithmetic with real numbers

At the end of Section 1, we discussed the decimals and asked whether it is possible to add and multiply these numbers to obtain another real number. We now explain how this can be done using the Least Upper Bound Property of Author(s): The Open University

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7 Unit summary

This unit presents an understanding of ‘ethics’ as something related with ‘good’ and ‘bad’. There are other derivative words like ‘optimal’ that might also be used, and there are parochial words which are related to particular communities. When we talk about ethical things, we are liable to confront cultural differences that are reflected in differences in vocabulary. But there are other kinds of differences too. Things have different properties; for example, ‘appearance’
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4.5 Torture

The question of torture is also raised in the play. Herrenvolk claims that he does not do the torture; it is some Uzbekistan outfit that does it. He actually gives them a justification by saying, in a rather glib way, that it is a lot easier to open a human being than an encrypted laptop. Of course, the question is, is it ever ‘right’ to exploit this as a means of finding things out? I suspect most of us would say ‘no’.


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1.2 Ethical examples

But is this a tenable position? In other words, is it only the people who use the technologies who carry the ethical burden? Conversely, is ethics of any interest to engineers, programmers and scientists? What, in the first place, constitutes an ethical issue? To begin examining these questions, let's look at some examples.

Example 1: Th
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References

Collins, S., Ghey, J. and Mills, G. (1989) The Professional Engineer in Society, London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Foster, J., with Corby, L. (illustrator) (1996) How to Get Ideas, San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.
Haaland, J., Wingert, J. and Olson, B. A. (1963) ‘Force required to activate switches, maximum finger pushing force, and coeffici
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

Video Materials

This video extract is from Coast Se
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2.2 Background and recordings

Sorley MacLean, 1911–98, is now regarded as one of the greatest Scottish poets of the twentieth century. Until the 1970s, his verse was known by very few people. In that decade, publication of English translations and the impact of his public readings established him in the eyes of poetry lovers in Scotland, Ireland and England, as well as further afield, as a major poet.

Yet, curiously, this impact depended on work that mostly derived from a very specific conjunction of personal and
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2.1.1 Aims

The aims of these recordings, in which Sorley MacLean is interviewed by Iain Crichton-Smith, are to:

  • (a) help you to sense the power of MacLean's poetry in its original Gaelic;

  • (b) assist your understanding of the English texts of the poems, translated by MacLean himself.


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5.4 Activity 8

Activity 8

The M & S case study illustrates the importance of managing relationships. Having read it, try to answer the following questions.

  • On which value discipline has the company chosen to f
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Table

Table 1: Eurobarometer 49, September 1998, © European Communities.

Unit Image

www.flickr.com TPCOM

All other materials included in this unit are derived from co
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1 What does the philosophy of the social science offer?

Why study the philosophy of the social sciences? Before we can answer this question we need to ask briefly a whole series of preliminary questions, such as:

  • Why do we study social phenomena?

  • How do we study social phenomena?

  • How does theory help us to deal with complex evidence?

  • Which theory is the most appropriate?

  • Which concepts are most useful for the task?

  • How do
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WO-339_19222 Casualty notification form Captain Alfred Edward Bland

The National Archives UK posted a photo:

WO-339_19222 Casualty notification form Captain Alfred Edward Bland

The casualty notification form for Captain Alfred Ed
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7.5 The spread of spam

A staggering 25 per cent of all incoming mail messages to the Open University in February 2004 were marked as spam by our automated spam filter. Is this a problem that is getting worse?

There are companies that act as filtering agents for email; they check and stop viruses, spam and pornography.

  • Do, using the link below, look at the proportion of messages that one such company, Messagelabs, has blocked in the last 12 months.


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2.3 Trojans

The term Trojan comes from the Greek legend about the fall of the city of Troy. The story goes that, during the seige of the city by the Greeks, a huge, hollow wooden horse was left in front of the gates. The inhabitants thought that it was a peace offering from the Greek army and dragged it into the city. Unknown to them, it was being used to conceal Greek soldiers, who were thus able to use this Trojan horse to enter the city and open the gates for the rest of their army.

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2.2.1 What is the difference between a worm and a virus?

Unlike a virus, a worm does not infect files on a host computer. Instead it adds a file to the computer that is malicious code, and runs it ‘in the background’. A computer has many programs running in this way in order for its system to operate. For instance, when you create a document you can see the text editor, such as Microsoft Word, Notepad or Star Office, but in the background the spell checker or the printer program are working even though you do not see them on the screen.

W
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2.1.1 What do we mean by 'infect'?

A virus will attach itself in various ways to a file that already exists on a ‘host’ computer, and when that file is run, the virus activates as well. A computer virus works in a similar way to a biological virus.

Biological virus: an infectious agent of small size and simple composition that can multiply only in living cells of animals, plants or bacteria.

Computer virus: an infectious program of small size
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2.1 What is a virus?

A virus is a piece of computer code – a program – that has been written to gain access to files or programs on your computer. The virus may enter your computer via floppy disk, by email or by your Internet connection. It will look at the files on your computer and infect some of them if it can.


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2.2 Fixed and adaptive protocols

The protocol described above for a simple naming service is an example of a fixed protocol. This is a protocol whose vocabulary is fixed: it is embedded in the client and server's code and data and does not change. An adaptive protocol is one where the protocol changes. A fixed protocol could change over a period of time because the functionality provided by a server changes. However, this change will be over months or years rather than over seconds.

There are some instances wher
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