Creating a Dynamic Venue for MIT Entrepreneurship
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Lesson 03 - One Minute Luxembourgish
In lesson 03 of One Minute Luxembourgish you will learn to say that you can speak a little Luxembourgish. Remember - even a few phrases of a language can help you make friends and enjoy travel more. Find out more about One Minute Languages at our website - http://www.oneminutelanguages.com. One Minute Luxembourgish is brought to you by the Radio Lingua Network and is ©Copyright 2008.Author(s): No creator set

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my little great boys
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Maasai Culture and Dance

This short video provides a glimpse of the rich Maasai culture and their energetic music and dance.

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Did Aliens build the Pyramids? (2of3)

Part 2 of "Did aliens build the pyramids?"

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Steve Jobs demos Apple Macintosh in 1984 to a cheering crowd

The crowd goes wild when they see moving text and later a 3d chessboard, but the biggest highlight is when the Macintosh actually speaks. The Macintosh was revolutionary because it was the first PC to have a mouse and a graphical user interface.

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Steve Jobs and Bill Gates Together: Part 1 of 10

In their rare joint appearance at All Things Digital 5,
Steve Jobs and Bill Gates discuss their contributions to the technology

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Black Gold : Lesbrief bij documentaire
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De door de internationale pers geprezen documentaire Black Gold toont op onthullende wijze dat we door slechts één kopje koffie onlosmakelijk verbonden zijn met het lot van miljoenen …


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Erwin Center Press Conference
Clemson University President James F. Barker announced a $1.05 million gift from Joe and Gretchen Erwin, co-founders of leading advertising and marketing firm Erwin Penland, to establish the Erwin Center for the Study of Advertising and Communication at the school. The gift creates a unique relationship between the Erwin family, Clemson University and Erwin Penland.
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The loss of a DNA base causes an abasic site

Hydrolysis of the deoxyribose Cl'–base linkage results in the complete loss of a purine or pyrimidine base, resulting in what is called an abasic site, an event with obvious genetic consequences. This hydrolysis reaction is much more likely to occur at purine bases, resulting in depurination of the DNA (Table 3a<
Author(s): The Open University

4.6 Summary

  1. RNA chains play fundamentally important roles within the cell, including genetic information transfer (mRNA), components of the translation machinery (rRNA in ribosomes and tRNAs) and as regulatory small RNAs.

  2. The tertiary structure of RNA is determined by interactions that maximise base pairing. Despite instability and isolation problems, the tertiary structures of several major cellular RNAs are known.

  3. Transfer RNA struct
    Author(s): The Open University

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Aptamers

Aptamers are nucleic acid molecules that have been developed to mimic the selective and tight binding of other molecules such as antibodies. In order to identify an aptamer that is capable of binding to a target molecule, a process called Selex (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) is utilised. The strategy relies upon a combination of a selective binding assay and amplification by PCR. A ‘library’ of short single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides is synthesised <
Author(s): The Open University

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Antisense regulation of gene expression

The term antisense refers to the use of a nucleic acid that is complementary to the coding (i.e. ‘sense’) base sequence of a target gene. When nucleic acids that are antisense in nature are introduced into cells, they can hybridise to the complementary ‘sense’ mRNA through normal Watson-Crick base pairing. Synthetic antisense DNA chains as short as 15–17 nucleotides in length have been used to block specific gene expression by either physically blocking translation of the tar
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4.3 Hairpin formation and micro-RNAs

A class of small RNA molecules called micro-RNAs (miRNAs) has been identified in recent years. The roles of these small RNAs are only just beginning to be understood, but many are expressed only at specific developmental stages. Indeed, the first observations of miRNAs were made in C. elegans because of their mutant developmental phenotypes. The genes that encode these miRNAs are called mir genes (pronounced ‘meer’) and have now been identified within the genomes of v
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4.2 The structure of tRNA

Transfer RNAs are small and compact molecules. Comparisons of the base sequences of many tRNAs led to the predicted four-leaf clover structure shown in Figure 18a, which follows the rule of maximising base-pairing interactions. This structure was largely confirmed by analysis with single-strand nucleases.

Two of the four main arms of the tRNA molecule are named according to their function, i.e. binding to the mRNA trinucleotide that encodes a specific amino acid (anticodon arm),
Author(s): The Open University

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4.1 The varied structures of RNA

RNA is a versatile cellular molecule with the ability to adopt a number of complex structural conformations. Although RNA is often thought of as a single-stranded molecule it is actually highly structured.

SAQ 19

Author(s): The Open University

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Summary of Section 3

  1. Watson–Crick base pairing arises due to hydrogen bonding between A and T and G and C and spatial limitations within the hydrophobic core of the helix.

  2. DNA commonly folds into the B-form helix; other forms such as Z-DNA form in vitro. A-form helices are formed primarily by duplex RNA.

  3. The twisting of DNA around its helical axis results in torsional stresses that promote the formation of high-energy alternative confo
    Author(s): The Open University

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Triplex structures

An unusual form of three-stranded structure, called triplex DNA, can arise in vitro when a single-stranded region of DNA pairs with a paired duplex DNA helix through additional hydrogen bonding between the bases of all three strands.

SAQ 18

Author(s): The Open University

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3.3 Other structures in DNA

We will finish our discussion of DNA structure by examining two cases of unusual structures that can arise.


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The fluidity of torsional stress along the DNA chain

The fluid changes in conformation and free energy of the DNA helix are influenced by many processes including the binding of proteins, some of which may have a regulatory function. Thus binding of a protein in one position along a DNA chain could result in alterations in the topology of the DNA, and hence changes in free energy availability, both locally and at some distance from the binding site. Changes in torsional energy may serve as an indicator of the state of the surrounding helix. For
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