2.6 Summary of Section 2

Human language is a complex communication system that allows the generation of infinitely many different messages by combining the basic sounds (phonemes) into words, and combining the words into larger units called sentences. The way the sounds combine is governed by phonological rules, and the way the words combine is governed by syntactic rules.

Phonemes can be divided into the vowels, which are made by vibration of the vocal folds, and consonants, which are abrupt sounds made by bri
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2.4 From phoneme to meaning: the semantic problem

For a vervet monkey, once an alarm call has been assigned to the correct phonological class – leopard, snake or eagle – then the task is straightforward indeed. Each of these sound patterns is connected in long-term memory to some ‘prototype’ of the predator in question, including what it looks like, what it does and so on. The eagle call always means eagle, whatever the context. The activation of the brain trace for the eagle call invariably activates the
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2.3 From ear to phoneme: the phonological problem

The phonological problem is the problem of knowing which units (words, calls) are being uttered. The speech signal is a pattern of sound, and sound consists of patterns of minute vibrations in the air. Sounds vary in their frequency distribution. The sound of a flute playing is relatively harmonic. This means that the energy of the sound is concentrated at certain frequencies of vibration. A plot of the energy of a sound against the frequency at which that energy occurs is called a spe
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2.2 Generativity and duality of patterning

Let us now reconsider the sentence you heard in the imaginary scenario at the beginning of this unit. Here it is again.

  • (1)  My dad's tutor's no joker, and he told me the TMA's going to hit home with a bang.

Activity 2

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7.3 The descending auditory pathway

The auditory system transmits information from the cochlea to the auditory cortex. Another system follows a similar path, but in reverse, from the cortex to the cochlear nuclei. This is the descending auditory pathway. In general, the descending pathway may be regarded as exercising an inhibitory function by means of a sort of negative feedback. It may also determine which ascending impulses are to be blocked and which are allowed to pass to other centres in the brain. The olivocochlear bundl
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • describe and comment on the main features of a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of stars in general, and of stars in a cluster;

  • outline a broad model of stellar evolution based on the observed properties of large numbers of stars, and describe how stars of different initial mass might evolve;

  • describe the effects of interstellar material on starlight, and outline some of the processes by which such material
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4.3 Calcium (Ca)

About 40% of the total mineral mass of bones is calcium, making it the most abundant mineral in the body. In bone, it is combined with phosphorus, as well as oxygen and hydrogen, in a mineral compound called hydroxyapatite. Calcium is also present in the fluids in the body, and there it occurs in the form of dissolved ions. An ion is an atom that carries a very small electrical charge, which can be either positive (+) or negative (−), depending on the ion.

You may recall from our stud
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4.1 Introduction to minerals and why we need them

Both vitamins and minerals are essential in the diet in small quantities and so they are often grouped together as micronutrients.

Activity 24

Which items in the diet are classified as macronutrients?

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Introduction

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course Human genetics and health issues (SK195)

In this unit you will learn how advances in genetics could change the way in which diseases are diagnosed and managed. The advent of predictive medicine, based on more detailed DNA profiling of individual genotypes using technologies like gene chips, rather than screening for
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1.5.2 Sedimentary processes

Sedimentary grains are formed when the rocks at the Earth's surface are slowly broken up physically by exposure to wind and frost, and decomposed (chemically) by rainwater or biological action. These processes are collectively termed weathering. Once a rock has been broken up by weathering, the small rock fragments and individual mineral grains can be eroded from their place of origin by water, wind or glaciers and transported to be deposited elsewhere as roughly horizontal layers of sediment
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1.3 Minerals and rocks

To begin with, it is necessary to explain the meanings of the two terms ‘minerals’ and ‘rocks’.


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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • explain the difference between a mineral and a rock;

  • describe the textural differences between igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks;

  • account for these differences in terms of the processes that produce these rocks;

  • classify igneous rocks according to their grain size and mineralogical composition;

  • recognise the difference between a body fossil and a trace fossil;

    <
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The Nature Explorers South Mogollon Rim Part 5 of 11
By: thenatureexplorers With elevations ranging from 5000 feet with a Chihuahuan Desert ecosystem to mixed conifers at 9000 feet, the South Mogollon Rim is comprised of many diverse species of plants and animals from ducks to lizards.
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Learning from the Patient's Perspective: A View from A Patient with Sickle Cell Disease

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