3.5 Summary of Section 3

  1. Protein domains allow segregation of different functions in the same protein. They can have a binding function, a structural function or a catalytic function.

  2. Binding domains mediate interactions between proteins of related function (such as those in a signalling cascade) and often are important in regulation of activity. Interactions via these binding domains are often dependent on the phosphorylation state of one of the binding partners. Exa
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The loss of a DNA base causes an abasic site

Hydrolysis of the deoxyribose Cl'–base linkage results in the complete loss of a purine or pyrimidine base, resulting in what is called an abasic site, an event with obvious genetic consequences. This hydrolysis reaction is much more likely to occur at purine bases, resulting in depurination of the DNA (Table 3a<
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4.3 Hairpin formation and micro-RNAs

A class of small RNA molecules called micro-RNAs (miRNAs) has been identified in recent years. The roles of these small RNAs are only just beginning to be understood, but many are expressed only at specific developmental stages. Indeed, the first observations of miRNAs were made in C. elegans because of their mutant developmental phenotypes. The genes that encode these miRNAs are called mir genes (pronounced ‘meer’) and have now been identified within the genomes of v
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10.1 Media coverage of the MMR controversy

Hargreaves, I., Lewis, J. and Speers, T. ‘Towards a better map: Science, the public and the media’, Economic and Social Research Council.

Unlike the other two stories, the MMR coverage conforms to a more conventional news pattern in which a story breaks, generates discussion and debate, then fades away. Of the 561 stories on MMR recorded over a seven and a half month period, 56 percent of the entire sample appeared in one month between 28 January and 28 February. Coverage was
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1.2 Ethical examples

But is this a tenable position? In other words, is it only the people who use the technologies who carry the ethical burden? Conversely, is ethics of any interest to engineers, programmers and scientists? What, in the first place, constitutes an ethical issue? To begin examining these questions, let's look at some examples.

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3.3 Binding domains in intracellular signalling proteins

The study of intracellular signalling pathways has highlighted the importance of multidomain architecture in protein function and some of the best-characterised binding/regulatory domains are those of signalling proteins.

Signalling pathways serve to communicate extracellular signals, usually recognised and transduced by specific membrane proteins, to effector proteins inside the cell and hence to elicit an appropriate response. Proteins in a signalling pathway are therefore required to
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4.3 Conserved protein domains

By comparing the extensive protein databases, it is possible to identify many thousands of conserved domains. For example, within eukaryotes, over 600 domains have been identified with functions related to nuclear, extracellular and signalling proteins. The majority of conserved domains are evolutionarily ancient, with less than 10% being unique to vertebrates.

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4.4 Other Wenlock Limestone fossils

Among the other fossils common in the Wenlock Limestone are brachiopods (Figure 12a and b), gastropods (Figure 12c) and bryozoans (Figure 12d). You may need to reread Section 1.3 to remind yourself about various aspects of these groups.

Figure 13 (the course image) is a reconstruction of a typical scene from a Wenlock Limestone environment. Se
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3.4 Modular multiplication

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