1.2 Nucleic acids: genetic, functional and structural roles in the cell

The first role that one immediately thinks about for nucleic acids is that of an inherited genetic material, principally in the form of DNA. In some cases, the inherited genetic material is RNA instead of DNA. For example, almost 60% of all characterised viruses have RNA genomes and these are more common in plant viruses than in animal viruses. There is considerable variation in the amount of genetic material present within organisms (Author(s): The Open University

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Summary of Section 2

  1. Nucleic acids are intrinsically highly flexible molecules.

  2. The chemical properties of nucleic acid components are primary determinants in structure formation.

  3. The formation of nucleic acid structures is driven by base pairing and stacking interactions between the hydrophobic bases. In DNA, these interactions drive the formation of the double helix, whose structure is maintained under torsional stress by twisting. RNA second
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    Copyright © 2013 The Open University

1 Meeting the insect eaters

As you work through this course you will come across boxes, like this one, which give you advice about the study skills that you will be developing as you progress through the course. To avoid breaking up the flow of the text, they will usually appear at the start or end of the sections.

As well as the co
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2.4 Analysis of nucleic acids by electrophoresis and hybridisation

Nucleic acids can be separated according to size by gel electrophoresis, most commonly performed using a horizontal gel (Figure 7a). This is in contrast to the vertical gel electrophoresis set-up, which is generally used for analysis of proteins.

The size of DNA molecules is usually expressed in terms of the number of
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Introduction

We have divided the collection under the following headings:

  1. Evolution and natural selection

  2. Animals at the extremes

  3. Studying mammals

  4. How Darwin has influenced others

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