1.1 Abbreviations used within this unit

While reading this subject you may come across the following abbreviations.

AAL – ATM adaptation layer

API – application program interface

ARP – address resolution protocol

ATM – asynchronous transfer mode

B-ISDN – broadband ISDN

CLP – cell loss priority

DNS – domain name system

FTP – file transfer protocol

HTTP – hypertext transfer protocol


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4.5 Input and output considerations

In this final portion of Section 4, I shall look in outline at how text, moving pictures and sound can be input into a PC and output from it. I'll leave aside the possibility that the data has been obtained by buying a disk or downloading via the Internet and assume that the user is creating it.

I'll start by considering text, typed in at the keyboard. Pressing a key closes a contact and causes electrical current to flow. This enables the computer's keyboard input system to detect which
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References

Eyewitness Travel Guide (1997) Amsterdam. London, Dorling Kindersley. pp. 120-1.
Götz, V. (1998) Color and Type for the Screen. Berlin, RotoVision (in collaboration with Grey Press).
Hartley, J. (1994) Designing Instructional Text. 3rd edn. London, Kogan Page.
Michaelis, P. R. and Wiggins, R. H. (1982) ‘A human
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you t
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4.5 What's going on when searching for your ancestors

You have seen how general purpose search engines work. In this section we consider some of the additional techniques that are important to genealogical searches.


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6.2 Different kinds of ‘evidence’

The terms you use and the ways in which you support your argument depend on the subject you are studying and what kind of text you are talking or writing about.


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2.1 Reading

Before you begin your interrogation of a text, though, you have to get to know it in a general way. In a sense, you can ‘see’ visual texts (such as paintings, sculptures and buildings) all at once; there they are before you. You can move around them, looking at them from different angles. But with written, aural and moving image texts – in which words, sounds or images follow on from one another – you cannot become familiar with the whole thing until
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6.1 What is a pie chart?

A pie chart is a circular chart (pie-shaped); it is split into segments to show percentages or the relative contributions of categories of data.


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5.2.1 Discrete variables

The charts about different modes of transport and that on attendance figures at a range of cultural events all use what might be called ‘word categories’. Each category (e.g. bus, rail, cycle, and walk) is quite distinct from any other in the set of categories. Such distinct categories are known in mathematics as ‘discrete variables’.

Word categories are not the only type of variable that is discrete; numbers can also be discrete. For example, at the beginning of this section, w
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3.1.1 When are tables used?

Within your course, tables are likely to be used as a particular structured format to summarise numerical information. They tend to be used to present data as a summary and as a starting point for discussion. But someone always prepares tables. So always be aware of where the table that you are looking at has come from. Could the source be trying to tell you something in particular? For example, if a table were summarising the costs of running a hospital, would you expect figures from the gov
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • reflect on the reasons for needing to improve skills in using charts, graphs and tables

  • understand the following mathematical concepts and how to use them, through instruction, worked examples and practice activities: reflecting on mathematics; tables; line graphs; bar charts and histograms; pie charts; analysis

  • draw on a technical glossary, plus a a list of references to further reading and sources
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4.4 Bar charts

Bar charts show data in the form of bars that illustrate the relationship between the items of information in terms of size: the bars get larger (generally taller) as the amounts being shown increase.

When the bars touch, they show continuous data. In other words, data that changes gradually along some sort of a scale, for example weight, height, temperature, or length (these charts are called histograms, see Author(s): The Open University

5 Obtaining descriptive statistics

Activity 4

0 hours 20 minutes

This activity demonstrates how a simple dataset can be used to produce some basic statistics. You will see how the data from a simple experiment can
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5 The pedagogy of open learning

One of the key differences between open learning, where the ‘student’ is remote from the teacher, and a learner just reading a textbook or looking up information for themselves on the internet, is the need to encourage active learning. Whether the material is text, online quizzes or audio-visual elements, the learner should not be a passive absorber of information but actively interacting with the resources. This is grounded in views of how people learn. But I have made some assump
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4 Copyright and OER

I assume that you are reading this course because you would like to create a course similar to the materials that you can find on the OpenLearn website. You therefore have a teaching purpose and are particularly interested in the use of online tuition. Hopefully you are also keen to share your teaching materials with others. But why bother creating a new OER? Surely there is so much material already available for free on the web anyway!

I would answer this in a number of ways. First: qu
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3 Finding and evaluating OERs

When seeking content for adaptation and re-use in open educational contexts there are several tools available to support discovery. Many of these tools are the result of experimental prototyping and short-term funded projects, however, and therefore carry with them a certain amount of risk. Not all are sustained beyond the life of the funding, but these initiatives have sought to use a variety of search technologies to support the discovery of generic and domain-specific OERs. As we move forw
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2 What makes a good OER?

What is an open educational resource?

The term ‘open educational resource’ is one that encompasses a broad range of items. It can describe a single image or an entire short course, and materials can be in any medium or a mixture. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has defined OERs as ‘digitised materials offered freely and openly for educators, students and
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Health and Social Care. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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4 Audio clip 3: Enid Francis

Enid Francis lived in a modern residential area on the outskirts of Derby. She shared a house with her husband, Wally, and two grown-up sons, Mark and John. Her husband had had to give up work eighteen months before his retirement, because of a heart complaint. Their two sons, aged 35 and 32, were both autistic. Enid's day was organised around meeting their needs for care and support. On weekdays, they attended a day centre, which she would have to get them ready for. When they came home in t
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence.

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject
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