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1.3 Constructing a new image

The image ‘Glasgow's miles better’ was deliberately constructed by the City Council, avowedly to make Glaswegians feel better about Glasgow but in fact largely on behalf of business. But it begged a question – ‘miles better for whom?’ Certainly, the city centre was better for shoppers and visitors and the new roads were literally ‘miles better’ for motorists, but the spiralling problems of the housing schemes provided stark counter-images. In other words, as with all images, the
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2.3 Activity 1: Flora Macdonald

temp – ground stewardess – office manager – accountant

Figure 1.4
© Owen Logan ©
© Owen Logan

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3.1 Introduction

As well as looking at the behaviour of firms and the industries and markets to which they belong, economists also engage in a different style of inquiry, thinking about what economic change means for the lives of the people involved. Once again there is a variety of interpretations and different ideas but this time they concern the desirability of economic change. What benefits does the ‘new economy’ bring and what costs, or negative effects, does it impose on people? In analysing these b
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2.4 Information and communication technologies

The new economy is much more than a shift from manufacturing to services and the increased integration of economies on a global scale. It is also strongly linked to the development of ICT, which has facilitated the development of new processes and products, especially ‘knowledge goods’ which are described below.

The internet has increased the ‘connectivity’ or interconnectedness between economies by making textual communication possible in real time as well as providing a new me
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • appreciate different understandings of the new economy;

  • understand claims about the benefits and costs of the new economy.


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6 Conclusion

As you moved through the various techniques we can use to analyse media texts in Sections 2 to Section 4, you should have discovered how rich even the simplest text can be in its drawing on political, social and cultural meanings discernible by close attention. Textual analysis enables you to register and negotiate the polysemy of texts and to see how the preferred reading is not the only one available. The preferred reading may be given prominence, however, by anchoring or by the genre chose
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Acknowledgements

This chapter is taken from Living Political Ideas (eds) Geoff Andrews and Micheal Saward published in association with Edinburgh University Press (2005) as part of a series of books which forms part of the course DD203 Power, Dissent, Equality: Understanding Contemporary Politics.

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4 What is a ‘nation’?

Guibernau (1996, p. 47) has defined the nation as: ‘a human group conscious of forming a community, sharing a common culture, attached to a clearly demarcated territory, having a common past and a common project for the future and claiming the right to rule itself’. So awareness, territory, history and culture, language and religion all matter. However, it is rare in the real world to find a case of a nation with a clear-cut and homogenous character in terms of this list of possibilities.
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1 Overview

This course begins with some explanations of culture and discussion of how to distinguish between national and organisational culture. Reading what some well-known writers on organisational and national culture have to say will help you recognise some of the main dimensions of culture and reinforces that all of us, including organisations, construct different views of the world as a result of cultural influences. Thus culture plays a key role in the ways in which organisations perceive the en
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • illustrate what is social about social science;

  • demonstrate how certain social constructions become dominant;

  • distinguish how labelling something can create expectations about behaviour and actions;

  • give examples of inequalities that result from particular social constructions.


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Digital communications
Optical-fibre communications became commercially viable in the 1970s and innovation continues today. This free course, Digital communications, will illustrate how very high data rates can be transmitted over long distances through optical fibres. You will learn how these fibres are linked, examine the technology used and assess the future direction of this continually developing area of communication. Author(s): Creator not set

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2.1 Numbers

The supermarket example discussed in Section 1 involves various forms of data that a computer may need to handle. Some of these, such as numbers and characters, are simple but fundamental. Other forms of data, such as sequences, involve more complicated structure. In this section, we will introduce sets, which are a variety of data collection that is different from sequences. But first we will look more carefully at numbers and characters.

When developing software we need to dist
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • evaluate technical descriptions of communication protocols and demonstrate your understanding of their operation;

  • describe the characteristics of circuit-switched and packet-switched networks, and of connectionless and connection-oriented modes in packet-switched networks;

  • describe the role played by primitives in the OSI reference model;

  • explain how ‘vertical’ and ‘horizontal’
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17.4 The database server

The computer block on the right represents the database server, which is dedicated to managing a database and making the data available to other computers in the network. The database server receives data via the network. It stores, retrieves and manipulates data, for example by retrieving your previous points total and adding to it the number of points you have ‘earned’ on this visit. This data is also sent back via the network to the checkout computer to show you the total number of poi
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2.1 Introduction

There are many types of system – not just ICT systems. For example, we all have a nervous system and, as you are studying T175, you are in a higher education system. Our homes have plumbing systems and electrical systems.

Activity 1 (exploratory)

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4.2 Information in an e-business age

Sharing information in business is itself a risky business. The information that is exchanged between b2b partners, for instance, may include order information, customer details and strategic documents. Such information could be priceless to outsiders. As you saw in the previous section, huge costs can result from information getting into the wrong hands.

In sharing information, an organisation also needs to be aware of the various laws, regulatory frameworks and codes of practice. Fail
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4.2 Netiquette

Work through the following material on ‘netiquette’ and then try the quiz at the end of the section.


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2.1 Networked devices you use every day

The next activity aims to get you thinking a bit more about how ICT systems form part of your own life and to make you more aware of how you are living in a networked world. ICT systems are embedded in many everyday experiences and we have become so used to this that we hardly notice that we are using them.

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7.4.1 Architectural patterns

A software architecture is the broad structure of a software system. It describes its parts and how they are put together, and also captures an underlying rationale and associated concepts, such as professionalism (liability) and constraints (such as standards and economics). The term architecture is, again, reminiscent of its use in buildings.

Architectural patterns (also known as architectural styles) codify recurrent software architectures by describing the key
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5.2 Modelling techniques and language

Models are built using techniques. A technique is a tool to describe a particular way of viewing and understanding a system. It guides the creation of a model and defines the notation used to create it. This can be narrative or diagrams or even mathematics. Techniques deal with the complexity of a system, abstracting essential aspects and representing them as models.

A modelling language defines the notations used for many different techniques. The Unified Modeling Languag
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