Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • reflect on the reasons for needing to improve skills in using charts, graphs and tables

  • understand the following mathematical concepts and how to use them, through instruction, worked examples and practice activities: reflecting on mathematics; tables; line graphs; bar charts and histograms; pie charts; analysis

  • draw on a technical glossary, plus a a list of references to further reading and sources
    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4.4 Bar charts

Bar charts show data in the form of bars that illustrate the relationship between the items of information in terms of size: the bars get larger (generally taller) as the amounts being shown increase.

When the bars touch, they show continuous data. In other words, data that changes gradually along some sort of a scale, for example weight, height, temperature, or length (these charts are called histograms, see Author(s): The Open University

4.3.1 Pie charts

A pie chart is a diagram in the form of a circle, with proportions of the circle clearly marked. A pie chart is a good method of representation if we wish to compare a part of a group with the whole group. It gives an immediate idea of the relative sizes of the shares. So, for example, it can be used to consider advertising income. It can also be used to look at, say, shares of market for different brands, or different types of sandwiches sold by a store.

Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

8.3 Acknowledging the sources of ideas

Even when you have used your own words it is essential that you acknowledge the source of the ideas you re-present. This entails making a note of the author and date of publication of the material from which you extract key concepts and points. So at the end of our summary of the Croall extract above, we would need to acknowledge that we got our information from that source by putting (Croall, 1998) at the end of the relevant paragraph. If you use more than one author's work in a paragraph th
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4 Copyright and OER

I assume that you are reading this course because you would like to create a course similar to the materials that you can find on the OpenLearn website. You therefore have a teaching purpose and are particularly interested in the use of online tuition. Hopefully you are also keen to share your teaching materials with others. But why bother creating a new OER? Surely there is so much material already available for free on the web anyway!

I would answer this in a number of ways. First: qu
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

3 Finding and evaluating OERs

When seeking content for adaptation and re-use in open educational contexts there are several tools available to support discovery. Many of these tools are the result of experimental prototyping and short-term funded projects, however, and therefore carry with them a certain amount of risk. Not all are sustained beyond the life of the funding, but these initiatives have sought to use a variety of search technologies to support the discovery of generic and domain-specific OERs. As we move forw
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2 What makes a good OER?

What is an open educational resource?

The term ‘open educational resource’ is one that encompasses a broad range of items. It can describe a single image or an entire short course, and materials can be in any medium or a mixture. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has defined OERs as ‘digitised materials offered freely and openly for educators, students and
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Introducing ageing
Everyone is ageing, whatever their current age, and we live in a world where many people are living much longer than previous generations. This is often seen as a problem. But is it? This free course, Introducing ageing, will help you to think about this issue by introducing you to some key ideas in studying later life. First published on Thu, 18 Apr 2019 as Author(s): Creator not set

Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Health and Social Care. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.6.2 Assessing risk

Dev Sharma’s arrival at the Durrants’ home, following an incident involving a knife, is an example of an ambiguous situation. The morning after the incident he has to visit the Durrants, having received a telephone call from the home carer, reporting a claim by Arthur that his daughter, who has learning difficulties, has threatened him with a knife. Dev has to initiate a risk assessment. But what exactly happened and how should he set about his duties?

As a social worker Dev
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4 Audio clip 3: Enid Francis

Enid Francis lived in a modern residential area on the outskirts of Derby. She shared a house with her husband, Wally, and two grown-up sons, Mark and John. Her husband had had to give up work eighteen months before his retirement, because of a heart complaint. Their two sons, aged 35 and 32, were both autistic. Enid's day was organised around meeting their needs for care and support. On weekdays, they attended a day centre, which she would have to get them ready for. When they came home in t
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2 Schemes run by Swansea Cyrenians in 1999

A hostel, which provided accommodation for 13 people, predominantly men, in individual rooms and an overflow shed. It was run in partnership with the Family Housing Association. Three-quarters of its funding came from the Welsh Assembly, and a quarter from the local authority.

Another important source of revenue was Housing Benefit, through which residents were able to pay their accommodation charges. This varied enormously. Residents classified as ‘vulnerable’, like those with ment
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence.

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • use the sign graph diagramming technique to develop and communicate a systemic understanding of complex situations

  • identify feedback relationships as fundamental controllers within systems and as points of intervention to enact change.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

3.3 Types of quantitative systems model

There is a wide range of quantitative models, of varying degrees of sophistication and complication. In this pack, we will only cover those that I think you are likely to encounter in systems studies or could use to good effect. The techniques available subdivide broadly into two major classes, static models and dynamic models. The distinction between these will become clearer as you look at some detailed examples. Essentially, dynamic models are those where the set of calculations comprising
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2.2 Taking responsibility for your own learning

Not much of this unit conforms to the traditional pattern I mentioned earlier – the theory-example-exercise pattern. In particular, you will find you are expected to discover much of it for yourself. Why is this? This is a legitimate question and deserves a full answer. One year, a student at a residential summer school complained I had not taught him properly. I was, he told me, an expert and so why did I not demonstrate how to tackle the problem he was working on and pass my expertise on
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

7.3 Ethics and safety

A practising engineer makes ethical decisions, with moral and physical implications of varying magnitudes, on a daily basis. Examples of ethical dilemmas are limitless, ranging from the engineer who takes home the odd pen, file or discarded paper 'for the children', to the engineer who signs off a project without checking the details and identifying a simple arithmetic error of magnitude. The implications of either may be negligible – such as where the cost is more than compensated in unpai
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

8.1 Loose ends

Before moving into a discussion of the missing element of the rich picture, I want to direct your attention to all the thoughts and ideas I have encouraged you not to put into your rich picture. I imagine you might have collected quite a list of loose ends. The next activity will involve some of these.

Expect to take about half an hour to do the next activity.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2015 The Open University

5.11 Sustaining innovation and disruptive innovation

As it's sometimes difficult to say whether a particular innovation is radical or incremental, a useful distinction made recently is between sustaining innovations and those that are disruptive. You'll read more about these ideas in Part 3.

Briefly, a sustaining innovation is a new or improved product that meets the needs of most current customers and serves to sustain leading firms in their market position. So in this context improvements to gas lighting, say, would be sustaining
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4.2 Diagrams for understanding

Diagrams for understanding are best developed within the creativity phase, though sometimes you can go straight on to using a diagram more suitable to the connectivity phase. Most diagrams for understanding begin at the centre of the sheet of paper and work outwards. Buzan's (1974) spray diagram is built up from an initial idea with its branches; these branches have their own branches and so on until you reach the detail at the end of each twig. This technique is particularly useful fo
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University