2.3 Link words

A lot of people use the equals sign wrongly in places where another word or phrase might actually make the meaning clearer. Sometimes a link word or phrase is useful at the beginning of a mathematical sentence: examples include ‘So’, ‘This implies’ or ‘It follows that’ or ‘Hence’.

Example 3

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1.4.8 The standard deviation

The interquartile range is a useful measure of dispersion in the data and it has the excellent property of not being too sensitive to outlying data values. (That is, it is a resistant measure.) However, like the median it does suffer from the disadvantage that its calculation involves sorting the data. This can be very time-consuming for large samples when a computer is not available to do the calculations. A measure that does not require sorting of the data and, as you will find in later uni
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1.4.2 Measures of location

Everyone professes to understand what is meant by the term ‘average’, in that it should be representative of a group of objects. The objects may well be numbers from, say, a batch or sample of measurements, in which case the average should be a number which in some way characterises the batch as a whole. For example, the statement ‘a typical adult female in Britain is 160 cm tall’ would be understood by most people who heard it. Obviously not all adult females in Britain are the same
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1.4.1 Introduction

Histograms provide a quick way of looking at data sets, but they lose sight of individual observations and they tend to play down ‘intuitive feel’ for the magnitude of the numbers themselves. We may often want to summarize the data in numerical terms; for example, we could use a number to summarize the general level (or location) of the values and, perhaps, another number to indicate how spread out or dispersed they are. In this section you will learn about some numerical summaries
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3.2: Histograms

It is a fundamental principle in modern practical data analysis that all investigations should begin, wherever possible, with one or more suitable diagrams of the data. Such displays should certainly show overall patterns or trends, and should also be capable of isolating unexpected features that might otherwise be missed. The histogram is a commonly-used display, which is useful for identifying characteristics of a data set. To illustrate its use, we return to the data set on infants with SI
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