3 Personal agency, participation and refusal: gathering evidence

While it is difficult to exaggerate the impact of this construction of ‘welfare dependency’, particularly in the USA, this construction does not go unchallenged. A very wide range of groups of people who are poor or who are subject to discrimination succeed in shaping welfare arrangements by evading, refusing or resisting policies. Historically, there are numerous examples of collective agency in resisting and reshaping welfare policies. In the USA, Fox Piven and Cloward (1977) trace the
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Science. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance, and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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France seems to be undergoing a period of intense political instability. Dramatic images of demonstrations and riots on the street parallel rumours and scandal in the corridors of power. To what extent do the current events represent a real upheaval in the French political environment and what is the likely impact on the forthcoming Presidential elections? Ben Clift is a Senior Lecturer in Warwick's Department of Politics and International Studies and is an expert on the politics of France
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5.2 Lighter living costs and constraints

The costs of ‘light living’ actions need, of course, also to be considered. Some actions involve no cost or save money, for example, less flying, shopping or meat eating, or can even make money, such as letting out a spare room to increase household occupancy. Others are low cost with a rapid payback time; for example, replacing an incandescent light bulb with a low-energy compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) should pay back the new lamp's cost in lower electricity bills in about
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5.3 Moving towards a sustainable carbon footprint

So far, you've been considering reductions in average individual or household carbon footprints by 20% to 30% or more.

But it is becoming increasingly clear that this will not be enough. As I mentioned in Section 4, developed countries, like Britain, Germany and America, will have to reduce their CO2e emissions by 60% to 80% or more by 2050 to prevent climate change running out of control, while at the same time allowing the growing populations of Africa, India and China to r
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Norse Mythology: The Creation of The World, Part 2 of 2

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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

2008.02.01-Current Politics of the N-Word
A discussion of the current politics of the N-word.
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7.2.2 Summarising

During a long negotiation, summarising what has been proposed and the stage that the negotiations have reached helps both to clarify key points and to create mutual trust by indicating that all perspectives are being taken into consideration.


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2.5 Symmetry

Symmetry is a feature that has been used in the design of objects and patterns in many cultures throughout recorded history. From Greek vases and medieval windows to Victorian tiles and Native American decorations, symmetry has been seen as a way of achieving balance and beauty.

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