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1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 1228 1229 1230 1231 1232 1233 1234 1235 1236 1237 1238 1239 1240 1241 1242 1243 1244 1245 24893 result(s) returned

1.5.2 What is the significance of the numbers?

In seeking the significance of these numbers, there is more information on the tablet that we have not yet taken into account, namely the text of the column headings themselves. The heading of column A is partly destroyed, but the text headings for B and C are clearer. B says something like ‘ib-sa of the front’, and C ‘ib-sa of the diagonal’, where ib-sa is a Sumerian word whose significance here is not precisely known. The geometrical
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1.4 A remarkable numeration system

The Babylonian numeral system was described in Section 3 as ‘remarkable’. It is worth spelling out the reasons for this judgement. Although what we notice first is that it was a place-value system (see Box 1), what is perhaps more striking is the coupling of this feature with a ‘floating sexagesimal point’; that is, the lack of any indication about the absolute value of the number. This makes life hard for us in reading the tablets initially, but seems to have given the Babylonians un
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1.3 The historical study of cuneiform

Now, how did historical study reach the stage where Neugebauer and Sachs could pick up a tablet in a library and translate it so as to provide a fair degree of understanding? As with Egyptian hieroglyphs, cuneiform studies date from the last century. Their equivalent of the Rosetta Stone—a trilingual inscription for which one of the languages could be partially understood—was a sheer rock-face at Behistun in south-western Iran into which a text was carved in three languages, Old Persian,
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4.2 Moral grounds for thinking we are immortal

The moral reason (as Hume calls it) for thinking that there is an afterlife has already been touched on. God, being just, would surely see to it that we are punished or rewarded for our aberrant or commendable actions; this punishment or reward doesn't take place in this life, so it must take place after our body's demise. Here is a simple statement of the reasoning:

The moral argument for supposing there is an
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3.3 Deism

In the readings you will often come across allusions to the contrast between revealed religion and natural religion (or deism). The distinction turns on what the nature of the evidence is for a particular religious outlook. Deism is a form of natural religion that was prevalent in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europe.

The evidence underpinning revealed religion typically consists of a god supposedly revealing himself (or herself or itself) to an individual or small nu
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Learning outcomes

Having studied this unit, you should gain:

  • familiarity with debates in the late Enlightenment concerning suicide, immortality, the nature of evidence, the existence of God and related topics, plus some experience of participating in these debates;

  • acquaintance with some characteristic shifts and continuities in the move from Enlightenment ideals towards Romantic ones, including the new respect for sentiment; the increased emphasis on individualism, privacy
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Acknowledgements

This unit was written by Professor Tony Lentin

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Figures

Plate 1 Louis-Léopold B
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3.1 The moderate reformers

1789–92 was a period of relatively moderate reform in the spirit of the Enlightenment – moderate, that is, compared with what followed. It was certainly revolutionary in relation to what went before. The Constituent Assembly (August 1789–September 1791) and its successor, the Legislative Assembly (October 1791–August 1792), comprising educated members of the Third Estate joined by liberal-minded nobles and clergy, were satisfied with the transformation of absolute monarchy into
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1.10 Other considerations

While visitors to Aberdulais Falls seem genuinely to enjoy the experience, there is a possibility that only when they arrive at the site do they realise it is primarily an industrial site, with an attractive waterfall. There is no mention in the Aberdulais Falls title of it being an industrial site. Even the National Trust Handbook and website are a little ambiguous, using the phrase ‘Famous waterfalls and fascinating industrial site’ in its literature. Clearly not all visitors are member
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1.8 Conflict and tension

The management of a site such as Aberdulais Falls by its very nature highlights conflicting interests and tensions. Some relate to problems caused by the decision-making process itself, which can be slow and has to accommodate a range of interests of the various client bodies.

For example, when a new information centre was to be built on the site, the client bodies involved in making decisions about its overall appearance, form and fabric were: the National Trust Planning Committee, the
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1.6 Visitor numbers

The National Trust has actively sought to encourage visitors with a wide range of interests to the site, and to broaden the appeal of the site as much as possible:

  • displays include interpretation panels devoted to the geology, flora and fauna of the site

  • computer interactive displays have been used to expand the information base

  • guided tours are run, and information sheets and visitor packs have been produced


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1.5 Water power

This second phase was achieved by focusing on the water-power potential of the site. Water power had been the catalyst for the original industrial development, and it seemed apt to capitalise on that. It was decided to install a new waterwheel where the original one had been. This provided an important visitor attraction, and also presented the opportunity to use the waterwheel to generate electricity for the site, thus providing significant cost savings. Furthermore, as part of that building
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1.2 Aberdulais Falls and the National Trust

When the National Trust took over the Aberdulais Falls and the associated buildings, the site was derelict, overgrown and dangerous. Prior to the Trust's ownership, public access to the Falls over the land surrounding it had been denied. Important decisions had to be taken regarding the future of the site.

The A465 slices through the site and the suburbs of Neath have encroached on the river bed on both sides.

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1.1 Background

Aberdulais Falls is under the control of the National Trust. It is set in an area of outstanding natural beauty that has attracted artists for centuries (Turner visited the ten-metre high waterfall in 1796). Aberdulais Falls also has a four-hundred-year history of industrial use, due to the opportunities it provides for water power. The industrial history of Aberdulais Falls goes back to 1584, when the availability of water power and fuel led to copper ore from Cornwall being smelted there. C
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Introduction

This case study looks at Aberdulais Falls near Neath, South Wales. This is a place of great natural beauty, but also an important industrial heritage site. The course considers the key issues affecting the decision-making of the bodies which are responsible for looking after our heritage. For example, who decides what should be preserved from the past as our heritage, who is this heritage for, and how should it be presented and explained? In this case study, we examine the heritage debates ar
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Acknowledgements

Text

This unit was written by Dr Debbie Brunton

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The material below is taken (a
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References

Barker-Benfield, G.J. (1992) The Culture of Sensibility: Sex and Society in Eighteenth-Century Britain, Chicago and London, University of Chicago Press.
Jackson, S.W. (1970) ‘Force and kindred notions in eighteenth-century neurophysiology and medical psychology’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, vol. 44, pp. 397–410, 539–54.
Lawrence, C. (1979) ‘T
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3 Conclusion

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a series of innovative models of the body was produced, from the mechanical to the mathematical to the sensible. As groundbreaking anatomical investigation and physiological experimentation were carried out, the map of the body changed, and different parts (vessels, glands, nerves) acquired visibility and became the focus of much research. New atlases and images of the body were produced to help students grasp the object of their study. We cannot d
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2.2 The popularisation of ideas

One of the media that helped to popularise the importance of nerves and the concept of sensibility was to be found outside medical encounters, in a new and extremely successful literary genre, the ‘novel of sentiment’. Writers such as Samuel Richardson, Laurence Sterne and Henry Mackenzie, who were familiar with the current medico-physiological debate, openly drew on these notions and made their characters' sensibility and response to external events the driving force of their writing (Ba
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2.1 The sensible body

For centuries, and well into the early modern period, sense experience, including seeing, hearing and touching, as well as bodily movement, had been explained according to the precepts of Galenic physiology – that is, as the result of the action of animal spirits flowing along the nerves between the brain and the periphery. Nerves were understood as hollow ducts that distributed animal spirits to sustain sensation and motion. In his groundbreaking model of the body as a machine, Descartes r
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