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Beginner Lesson S4 #6 - This Meaty Spanish Lesson is Really Easier than You Think!
Learn Spanish with SpanishPod101.com! You’ve just arrived at the butcher with your friend so you can buy the meat you need to make tonight’s dinner. You’ve decided to try your Spanish grandmother’s recipe for stuffed peppers. You ask the butcher in Spanish for “mixed meat,” as if he should know what you want. He looks [...]
Author(s): SpanishPod101.com

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Violent Volcanoes
This video features outstanding images of volcanic activity. Images are a selection of favorite volcano photos submitted to MY SHOT by National Geographic readers. There is no narration; just background music. Video quality is excellent. (01:14)
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Generic Representations and the Generic Grid: Knowledge Interface, Organisation and Support of the (
Computer Aided Design requires the implementation of architectural issues in order to support the architectural design process. These issues consist of elements, knowledge structures, and design processes that are typical for architectural design. The paper introduces two concepts that aim to define and model some of such architectural issues: building types and design processes. The first concept, the Generic grid, will be shown to structure the description of designs, provide a form-based hier
Author(s): Achten, H.H., Bax, M.F.Th. and Oxman, R.M.

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2.3 Berliner experiments with plates

Emile Berliner was a young German immigrant to the USA with an interest in science. Whilst working in several menial jobs he educated himself in basic physics and chemistry, eventually building a small laboratory at his boarding house. Experiments with electricity and acoustics led to his invention of a new telephone transmitter, which he sold, enabling him to set up as a full-time inventor. He became interested in recording sound through studying a device called the phonoautograph. This appa
Author(s): The Open University

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Art History in a Hurry - Mona Lisa
This is a fascinating video about this famous painting. Wouldn't you like to know why she has no eyebrows? (02:17)
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Chapel Service - Week 4 - 1 March 2016 - Gary Millar - Luke 7-8
Gary Millar Chapel Sermon
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1.7.3 Explaining the observations

Having made and reviewed our observations, we are now in a position to interpret them – why are the rocks the way they are? The sedimentary strata that we see in Figure 16 were likely to have been deposited in essentially horizontal layers, so why is one set tilted and the other horizontal? To answe
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1.7.2 Interpretation of a geological exposure

We now want to make use of the observations obtained by sketching the exposure, and it is useful to start by briefly summarising the features seen. First of all, you probably noticed the large boulder in the foreground of Figure 16 (which has been attached below for ease of access). Where did this bou
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1.7 Geological fieldwork

Although much can be learned from samples of rocks in the laboratory or at home, the ‘natural habitat’ of rocks is outdoors. Here the distribution and layout of different rocks is visible wherever rocks are exposed in places such as stream beds, cliffs, rocky shorelines, quarries, or road cuttings. The exposed rocks can be studied in just the same detail as individual laboratory samples, and geological fieldwork allows the size and extent of each rock unit to be seen and the relationships
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1.6 Interlude

Now that we have covered the features found in igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, and seen how these features can be explained by the processes that formed the rocks, here is a useful point at which to have a break before continuing with the next section. Before returning, you might like to see for yourself what types of rock you can find in your area. Can you identify their texture, or spot any fossils? Surfaces that haven't been obscured by grime or lichens are by far the best, as
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1.5.2 Metamorphic recrystallisation

To consider metamorphic recrystallisation at its simplest, let's begin by imagining a sedimentary rock composed entirely of quartz grains – a quartz sandstone. Sandstone is a sedimentary rock and so has a fragmental texture (see Figure 7b). When it is subjected to high temperature and high pressure
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1.5.1 Causes of metamorphism

Activity 5

What natural process could cause a rock to be heated?

Answer

Heating can be caused when hot magma is intruded into a cool rock.
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1.5 The formation of metamorphic rocks

Any type of rock can become a metamorphic rock if it is heated to temperatures of several hundred degrees Celsius, and/or if subjected to high pressure (because of the weight of overlying rocks). During metamorphism, the minerals making up the rock become chemically unstable, meaning that their constituent ions are redistributed. The result is that either large crystals grow at the expense of existing smaller ones, or a new set of minerals is formed. Generally speaking, the overall chemical c
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1.4.6 Sedimentary structures

Consider some of the places where sedimentary materials are moved and deposited. Are the sediments always laid down in perfectly horizontal, perfectly flat layers? No; as often as not, the depositing surface is not perfectly flat. Instead, a system of parallel ridges, or ripple marks, like the ones shown in Figure 13a, form by the action that flowing water has on the erosion, transport and deposition of sand grains. In sedimentary strata, ripples and dunes (which are effectively larger versio
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1.4.3 Sedimentary strata

We've seen that the detective work of piecing together a part of Earth's history from sedimentary rocks involves detailed investigation of rock samples, but this can give only a partial picture. On the larger scale of a rock exposure, there can be plenty for us to see and to interpret. Sedimentary rocks are usually found as layers referred to as strata (Figure 10), with each stratum (layer) recording the particular conditions at the time of its deposition. (Note: sedimentary layers are often
Author(s): The Open University

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1.4.2 Sedimentary processes

Sedimentary grains are formed when the rocks at the Earth's surface are slowly broken up physically by exposure to wind and frost, and decomposed (chemically) by rainwater or biological action. These processes are collectively termed weathering. Once a rock has been broken up by weathering, the small rock fragments and individual mineral grains can be eroded from their place of origin by water, wind or glaciers and transported to be deposited elsewhere as roughly horizontal layers of sediment
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1.4.1 Sedimentary material

The laying down, or deposition, of layers of rock fragments, mineral grains, or biological material, such as the shells or other hard parts of dead organisms, can produce sedimentary rocks. Once deposited, the loose, unconsolidated sediment may be converted into a solid rock by compaction and cementing of the grains together by chemical action deep below the surface. These rocks consist, therefore, of fragments of sedimentary material, bound together by even smaller fragments, or some sort of
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1.3.4 Classifying igneous rocks

To classify (i.e. to name) igneous rocks, geologists use three pieces of information in combination – the grain size and the identity and proportions of the minerals present. The identification of minerals in a rock relies on recognising their particular distinguishing features. Such features include colour, lustre (the way in which light is reflected from the mineral's surface) and shape. The way in which certain minerals break apart along preferred planes, a property known as cleavage, ca
Author(s): The Open University

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1.3.3 Chemical and mineral composition of igneous rocks

As well as varying in grain size (owing to different cooling rates), igneous rocks also vary in chemical composition and hence in the identity and proportions of minerals present. For instance, the common igneous rock granite contains (as part of the strict geological definition of the term ‘granite’) between 10% and 35% by volume of the mineral quartz (chemical composition silicon dioxide – SiO2). On the other hand, the igneous rock gabbro (Figure 4a) does not
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Conclusion

Earthquakes shake the ground surface, can cause buildings to collapse, disrupt transport and services, and can cause fires. They can trigger landslides and tsunami.

Earthquakes occur mainly as a result of plate tectonics, which involves blocks of the Earth moving about the Earth's surface. The blocks of rock move past each other along a fault. Smaller earthquakes, called foreshocks, may precede the main earthquake, and aftershocks may occur after the main earthquake. Earthquakes are mai
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