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5.6 Against whom are rights claims made?

The third set of problems relates to whom the rights claims are made against, and what kinds of claims can be made. In the case of individual human rights, a rights claim is usually addressed to or claimed against the legal order of the state. However, it is often one of the problems at the international level that either the state claimed against does not recognise the claim, or that the body claimed against is not a state (that is, a political entity that is in some sense morally accountabl
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2.3 Divisions that matter: thinking through territories

Without losing our focus on the planet as a whole, it is time now to return to what Paani Laupepa from Tuvalu refers to as the ‘front line’ of climate change: those islands that are particularly vulnerable to rising sea level and associated climatic hazards (Lynas, 2003). It has often been said that low-lying coral islands like Tuvalu or Kiribas in the Pacific Ocean, or the Maldives in the Indian Ocean, are acting as a kind of early warning system for global climate change. Sea level is e
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3.2.1 Social disruption

In return for being granted enhanced market access by developed countries, which turned out to be somewhat illusory, developing countries agreed to open up their own markets. Indeed, for supporters of the UR, this was its biggest achievement. One of the central propositions of economic theory is that under certain conditions free trade is beneficial to a country – but there are inevitably winners and losers. As a country adjusts to free trade, some sectors of the economy advance, while othe
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The fascination with crime
Whether it's literature, television or film, crime has always been a popular genre with wide-appeal; but why is this source of fear such a fascinating subject to us? This four track audio album strives to answer this question through interviews with key figures such as criminologists and crime authors, with members of the general public also offering their definitions of crime. This material forms part of The Open University course T214 Understanding systems: making sense of complexity.
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Composing with MIDI
In the last 50 years, developments in technology have had a profound effect on the production, recording and manipulation of music. The 8 video tracks in this album introduce Simon Whiteside, a television and film composer, explore his recording studio and explain how he uses MIDI to create music for films and television programmes. Using an example of one of the programmes he has worked on, Simon illustrates the technical and creative processes involved. This material forms part of TA212 Techno
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Introduction

The optimistic approach to a problem is to view it as a challenge and an opportunity – a chance to make progress. In this course, the nature of problems is explored by looking at the way they are used as a stimulus for finding solutions. It is presumed from the start that you want to be involved in the process of finding solutions and that you are not expecting simply to be given the answers.

One example that is investigated in this course concerns how to devise lighter bicycle frames
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Introduction to finite element analysis
What is finite element analysis (what is it and why do we carry it out? This free course, Introduction to finite element analysis, introduces the essence of finite element analysis. As an example of its use, you will look at the case of FEA of the tub of a racing car. You will also have the opportunity to try out two exercises to carry out a simple analysis of a plate and a square beam. Author(s): Creator not set

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Structural devices
Microelectronics has enabled designers of integrated circuits to exercise complete control over the electrical characteristics of each component they create. This free course, Structural devices, will illustrate how such control is achieved and the various methods that can be applied in differing circumstances. First published on Tue,
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Tay Bridge disaster
The sudden collapse of Scotland's Tay Bridge in 1879 killed more than 70 rail passengers and shocked the population. An extensive inquiry was carried out, including numerous witnesses, experts and reports. Were the high winds that night to blame, or were poor design or mechanical failure at fault? This free course re-examines some of the original evidence from the Tay Bridge disaster. Author(s): Creator not set

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Theories in Technology Evaluation
This free course, Theories in Technology Evaluation, is devoted to exploring and analysing the theoretical and political nature of evaluation and assessment. It introduces theories and paradigms that play important roles in how we design, conduct and use evaluations and assessments, and deals with the thorny issue of participation in evaluation. Author(s): Creator not set

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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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5.3 Order and chaos

How can we explain a sudden switch of behaviour at a particular temperature? There must be two competing influences (say X and Y) that depend differently on temperature. Figure 23 indicates how a unique temperature (a so-called critical temperature, Tc) arises
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4.3.2 Competing processes

Let's look graphically at the way the rate of a thermally activated process changes with temperature. Figure 16 shows two rates with different activation energies of 1.0 and 0.5 eV – which curve is which?

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4.3 Thermally activated processes

Thermally activated processes are those that get going not because of average effects, but because the fraction of particles in the tail of the distribution increases with temperature. This is a basic property of the thermal distribution we have been discussing. For instance, what would take 30 000 years at room temperature may happen in under one second at 1000 K if it depends on how many particles have an energy in excess of 1 eV.

The next step in the study of energy distribut
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4.2.1 Quantifying thermal energy

Thermal energy is associated with random motion – that is, in effect, a definition. Because it is random, it only makes sense to talk about it in connection with a large population of atoms. I began with fifty million million million silicon atoms – that should be enough. If whatever motion they have is random, some may have lots of it, others very little. With such a large population it is reasonable to try to think about an average motion or, better, to define an average energy of the p
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4.1 Types of projects

Formal projects are a familiar part of nearly all work situations and are often a staple part of some organisations. Because of this it is worth looking at some of the features of formal projects and their management, as they have some different characteristics from other ongoing activities.

To write about projects, we have to define what they are and describe how they arise. Projects and project work are often contrasted with process: 'process', in this sense, describes the normal day-
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2.8 Why do (only some) teams succeed?

Clearly, it is not possible to devise a set of rules which, if followed, would lead inexorably to team effectiveness. The determinants of a successful team are complex and not equivalent to following a set of prescriptions. However, the results of poor teamworking can be expensive, so it is useful to draw on research, experience and case studies to explore some general guidelines. What do I mean by 'team effectiveness'? – the achievement of goals alone? Where do the achievements of individu
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2.3.7 New types of team

In addition to the traditional types of teams or groups outlined above, recent years have seen the growth of interest in two other important types of team: 'self-managed teams' and 'self-organising teams'.

During the 1990s many organisations in the UK became interested in notions of empowerment and, often as a consequence, set up self-managed or empowered teams. An Industrial Society Survey (1995) commented:


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2.6.1 Connectors

Many techniques have been used to design connectors that align the fibre ends accurately with high reliability and a long lifetime. The development of such components, at a low enough price, has been an important part of the overall development which has made fibre a feasible proposition for commercial transmission systems.

With fibre attenuation down to 0.2 dB km−1 (for single-mode fibre), the losses resulting from connectors and splices can be very significant over a whol
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2.4.2 Dispersion in single-mode fibre

Because there is only one mode in single-mode fibre, there is no multimode distortion but pulses are spread by dispersion.

Dispersion is the effect of different frequencies propagating at different speeds, and there are various mechanisms in optical fibre which mean that in general a fibre is dispersive. Given that dispersion takes place, a transmitted pulse will be spread because different frequency components in the pulse will take different lengths of time to propagate.
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