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What is strategy?
Thinking about strategy generates many controversial questions. This free course, What is strategy?, focuses on practitioner views of strategy. You will learn about application of its major theoretical advances in professional life. The course provides definitions of the concept of strategy and strategy-related vocabulary and examines Mintzberg's five Ps framework. First pu
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2.5 Project meetings schedule

You need to decide early on what meetings are essential to the monitoring process. All your stakeholders will expect to receive reports at regular intervals, whether formally or informally. So you need to ask yourself:

  • Who needs to be informed?

  • About what?

    How often?

  • By what means?

Effective communication involves giving information, collecting information and listening to people. To ensure the smoot
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2.3 Interdependency of systems

The control system approach to project control provides a simple overview of the process of planning, measuring against the plan and taking action to bring things back into line if necessary. This suggests that events will move in a fairly linear way. Life is messier than this, however, and every time that something happens it will have an impact on everything else around it – so the interdependency of systems is important to consider.

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2.2 So how can social marketing be defined?

The definition offered by Kotler, Roberto and Lee (2002, p. 5) is a useful one:

The use of marketing principles and techniques to influence a target audience to voluntarily accept, reject, modify or abandon a behaviour for the benefit of individuals, groups or society as a whole.

Social marketing relies on voluntary compliance rather than legal, economic or coercive forms of influence.

<
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2.1 Definitions of marketing

Before we focus on ‘social marketing’ we should clarify the nature of ‘marketing’ as both an academic discipline and a management practice.

Kotler and Armstrong (2008, p. 5) define marketing as follows:

Marketing is human activity directed at satisfying needs and wants through exchange processes.

Two key issues are highlighted by this definition:

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Conclusion

This course has focused on planning a project. At this stage you may find it useful to recap on the learning objectives introduced at the beginning of the course and to think about some of the issues associated with them.

  1. You should now be able to develop plans with relevant people to achieve the project's goals. This will involve identifying and finding ways of including the appropriate people in the project.

  2. You should be abl
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8 Drawing up the implementation plan

Once the detailed planning and risk assessments have been carried out, you are ready to assemble your implementation plan. A typical implementation plan, including diagrams and charts where appropriate, will contain:

  • a description of the background to the project;

  • its goals and objectives in terms of intended outputs and/or outcomes;

  • the resource implications (budget, personnel – including any training requirements – a
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5.2 Work breakdown

A work breakdown structure enables:

  • the work of a project to be divided into ‘packages’;

  • these ‘packages’ can be further subdivided into ‘elements’;

  • these elements are then divided into individual ‘tasks’.

This structure provides a basis for estimating the time and effort required. In a large project, the work breakdown structure might allow packages of work to be allocated to teams o
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2.2 The classic six-stage project management model

This model also consists of stages, but, unlike the sequential flow of the project life-cycle, the six-stage model assumes that some stages are carried out simultaneously. In particular, the model (Figure 3) assumes that communications will take place throughout the project. It also assumes that team building, leading and motivati
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Sociology. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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Key skill assessment unit: Information literacy
As the volume of information grows in databases, libraries and on the internet, information literacy skills are key to being able to find and manage information effectively in a complex society. Information literacy is about recognising when information is needed, and locating, critically evaluating, using and presenting the information to suit a specific purpose. These skills are increasingly in demand by individuals and employers alike. In this free course, Key skill assessment unit: Informat
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Introduction

Enterprise systems are software applications that automate and integrate all many of the key business processes of an organisation. With some understanding of software development, you will learn about current development practices for this type of system and develop relevant skills to apply them to real-world problems. You will develop core skills in object-oriented analysis and design, allowing you to develop software that is fit for purpose, reusable and amenable to change.

This Open
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Introduction

This course will introduce you to some ideas about how information and communiction technologies (ICTs) systems work. We will look at how ICT systems convey, store and manipulate data, and how they process data. Finally, using the example of a supermarket, we will analyse how ICT systems are used.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of level 1 study in Author(s): The Open University

Living with the Internet: Online shopping
Online shopping think of it as a shopping centre in cyberspace, with online auctions as the car-boot sale in the car park. This free course, Living with the Internet: Online shopping, will help you understand how to use online shopping sites, how to ensure that you are using the best sites and the best ways to protect your security. Author(s): Creator not set

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Living with the internet: learning online
Learning online is one of the great advantages of information technology. This free course, Living with the internet: learning online, will help you establish a safe and comfortable working environment to ensure that your study time at the computer screen does not impact on your health. It also looks at the basic skills for online study, such as file management and installing software. Author(s): Creator not set

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5.1.5 Is there an alternative school of thought?

I guessed that plenty of economists would disagree with Layard's point of view, if he is right that they have not used measures of happiness and have treated rises in real incomes as an unquestioned ‘good thing’. If I were studying this topic seriously, I would search for an article which tackled Layard's arguments from another perspective. When you encounter new ideas, it is useful to get more that one perspective on them, so that you can weigh one against the other.


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5.1.1 How much trust can I put in this text?

You would generally assume that any set texts for a are trustworthy. But when you find a text through your own research you need to run a few checks to assess the soundness of its content.

Who is the publisher?

If an article is from an academic journal, you can assume that its quality has been vetted by the journal's editors. Also if a book is published by a major academic publishing house, you would expect it to be ‘respectable’. And if it's a book from an academic ser
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Do Corporate Audits Lead to Insider Trading?
Wharton research looks at whether corporate insiders trade more around the audit report date -- and what it means.
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5.1 Phase and phase difference

In this section I am considering sine waves that have the same frequency, but are out of step with each other.

Suppose we have two detectors at fixed points, A and B. At this moment in time A is in a high pressure region and B in a low pressure region. If we were to look again shortly later B would now in a high pressure region and A in a low pressure region. The pressures at A and B would be out of step with each other. The pressure variation at B is not in phase with that at A. The ex
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