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Iran: War or Peace?
The Bush administration’s panic about failing in Iraq is now driving its fierce attitude toward Iran, according to Kenneth Pollack. President Bush’s 2007 State of the Union message hinted at exercising military force to deal with an Iran it accused of stoking up insurgency in Iraq. Pollack points out that historically
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The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy
The authors of The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy caused a sensation on the Beltway and on campuses across the U.S. Here they walk a respectful MIT audience through their argument that Israel does not deserve unconditional support from the U.S.

Stephen Walt builds a case that a special relationship exists

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La carte retrouvée

Voici un tour de cartes qui doit sa réussite beaucoup plus à la physique qu'à la magie : il s'agit de retrouver une carte choisie par un volontaire et glissée dans le paquet, simplement en tapant vigoureusement sur ce paquet. Comment le "magi-physi-cien" va-t-il s'y prendre ?


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6.4(c) Using energy more efficiently
Access to safe, clean and sustainable energy supplies is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity during the twenty-first century. This unit will survey the world’s present energy systems and their sustainability problems, together with some of the possible solutions to those problems and how these might emerge in practice.
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6.2 (a) ‘Cleaning-up’ fossil and nuclear technologies
Access to safe, clean and sustainable energy supplies is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity during the twenty-first century. This unit will survey the world’s present energy systems and their sustainability problems, together with some of the possible solutions to those problems and how these might emerge in practice.
Author(s): The Open University

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5.2.1 Supply-side measures
Access to safe, clean and sustainable energy supplies is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity during the twenty-first century. This unit will survey the world’s present energy systems and their sustainability problems, together with some of the possible solutions to those problems and how these might emerge in practice.
Author(s): The Open University

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3.3 Nuclear energy
Access to safe, clean and sustainable energy supplies is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity during the twenty-first century. This unit will survey the world’s present energy systems and their sustainability problems, together with some of the possible solutions to those problems and how these might emerge in practice.
Author(s): The Open University

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8 Summary
What is ecology and why is it important to our understanding of the world around us? This unit looks at how we can study ecosystems to explore the effect that humans are having on the environment.
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6 Mapping interrelationships
What is ecology and why is it important to our understanding of the world around us? This unit looks at how we can study ecosystems to explore the effect that humans are having on the environment.
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4 Identification and naming
What is ecology and why is it important to our understanding of the world around us? This unit looks at how we can study ecosystems to explore the effect that humans are having on the environment.
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1.3 Activities

Activity 2A sets the scene by focusing on the ‘big picture’ where you will be asked to choose between four alternative visions of the future. This activity radically shifts the scale of investigation from the personal to the global. However, as with all Author(s): No creator set

Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • evaluate a specific example or case of a product development process in terms of the ‘waterfall’ life cycle model of software development;

  • classify new product developments as: fault correction, enhancements, new but similar products, radically different, revolutionary or iconoclastic products;

  • analyse the causes of a systems failure;

  • identify and evaluate the importance of the
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4.2 Project life cycles
Are you always the quiet one when it comes to group discussion? This unit will help you improve your working relationships with other people in groups of three or more. This unit also deals with project life cycles, project management and the role of the leader.
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4.1 Beginnings

Systems engineering has its roots in three linked strands of thinking: the concepts of systems science, engineering and public policy problem resolution. The first of these can be traced back to the work of von Bertalanffy (1968, pp. 8–15, 96–98) and others during the 1920s and 1930s but received a significant impetus when, in 1954, the Society for General Systems Theory was established at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The society later cha
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Stage 3: Relevant systems and root definitions

The issues and key tasks extracted from the rich picture become the basis for defining what are called the ‘relevant systems’. For example, suppose the problem situation is a deteriorating performance in a call centre. One of the issues might be the (high) turnover of call centre operators. This might lead (depending on the point of view taken) to an idea of the call centre as an ‘employment-providing system’ or an ‘entertainment system’. There is no reason to restr
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3.6.1 When we just want to forget (‘we're only human’)

Group memory systems might be counterproductive if they damage morale or prevent a team from moving on after a failure. Studies of software teams show that many commercial projects are cancelled before completion. This generates an intense pressure to work as hard as possible (so that maintaining group memory falls by the wayside) and, understandably, in many cultures if a project is regarded as a failure everyone wants to forget it as quickly as possible rather than analyse it for lessons le
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3.5.1 Planning a group memory system: a framework

Nothing can be stored in a computer-supported organisational memory unless it is encoded in some form. Who is going to invest the effort to encode information within an organisation?

Creating a dedicated team of information librarians and knowledge managers is certainly one route, perhaps necessary for long-term maintenance of a large repository, just as librarians are needed to manage traditional libraries. But such a team cannot be experts in all aspects of the organisation's activiti
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3.2 Organisational memory systems

Without a memory, humans are paralysed in the present moment, unable to reflect on lessons learned or to anticipate the future. You will notice that the heading given to the framework in Figure 3 is corporate memory. The whole dynamic system of people and technologies is conceived as constituting an organisation-wide resource that will enable it to become a more intelligent, learning organism, to pursue the anthropomorphic metaphor. The organisational memory challenge goes beyond tradi
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References

Coffman, K. G. and Odlyzko, A. (1998) ‘The size and growth rate of the Internet’, First Monday, Vol. 3, Issue 10, http://firstmonday.org
ITU-T 1–150 (1999) B-ISDN Asynchronous Transfer Mode Functional Characteristics, ITU-T.
ITU-T X.200 (1994) Open Systems Interconnection – Model and Notation, ITU-T. (Also known as ISO/IEC 7498–1.)
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