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3.5.1 Expectancy versus effect

One of the biggest problems in evaluating psychological interventions is that even if a treatment appears to ‘work’ it can still be difficult to ascertain whether the results were a consequence of the treatment itself. The improvement might have occurred anyway, with or without the treatment, or the apparent benefits might have resulted from other factors, such as being able to discuss the difficulties with a professional who understands. Any treatment can lead to expectations of i
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3.3 Cognitive approaches

Cognitive approaches to therapy involve interventions that focus on addressing aspects of cognitive processing. For example, cognitive therapy is frequently used to treat stress, depression or phobia, and involves working with a therapist who highlights maladaptive beliefs that an individual may have about their situation. The individual is retrained to monitor their own thoughts, recognise when their thoughts are based on emotion rather than reality, reject biased cognitions and learn
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2.2.1 The phonological processing deficit

Recall Alexander Faludy's difficulties in learning to read and write, and the other behavioural characteristics associated with having dyslexia. You might have noticed that many features of dyslexia point to a difficulty with some aspects of memory. That is, people with dyslexia have difficulty with tasks that require short-term memory processing such as mental arithmetic, writing and learning new information. However, these tasks have an additional feature in common: they contain a phonologi
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1 The governors' role

The governing body has … general responsibility for the conduct of the school with a view to promoting high standards of educational achievement…

Guide to the Law for School Governors, 2004, Governornet

In 2001, the Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED) reported on the role of governing bodies in schools that had been made the subject of Special Measures following an inspection. Am
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4 Working with other stakeholders

When considering the accountability of the governing body, we need to think about the context of the school and the community it serves. The DfES states quite clearly that the school and its governing body are accountable to anyone who has a ‘legitimate interest’. You might like to spend some time considering who these people are.

In terms of providing both high-quality education and, consequently, an educated workforce, pupils, parents and the wider community are the ‘customers
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence.

All materials included in this unit are derived from content originated at the Open University.


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5.4.1 Aim of accessibility evaluation

The aim of an accessibility evaluation is to assess the extent of the accessibility of the teaching resource: not to evaluate whether it is or is not accessible. In other words, the question to ask is ‘To what extent is this product accessible to people with a range of disabilities?’ rather than ‘Is this product accessible?’ An accessibility evaluation should assess both technical accessibility and usable accessibility.


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4.4.5 Do – provide information

Clear information for students and advisors is essential. Disabled students need to know whether they can complete all the learning objectives and what adjustments they can expect. They need this information in good time before they start the course so that they can plan ahead. We have more to say on this subject in the section, ‘Informing students’.


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3.8.1 Use of computers by physically impaired people

As described above, people may have a wide range of physical impairments, which differ in terms of the extent to which they impair computer use, indeed they may only need suitable furniture. The assistive technology used depends on the person's specific disability.

People who have limited use of their hands or arms, or have reduced control of fine movements, may use a variety of input devices that suit their specific requirements, such as adapted keyboards, mice, trackballs and joystick
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3.3.2 Access to PC output for blind people

Blind people access computers using a combination of software and hardware that present the visual contents of the screen in another form, either in synthesised speech or in Braille. A piece of software known as a screen reader directs the information that is sent to the screen to either a speech synthesiser or a refreshable Braille display.

To hear the above paragraph read out by a synthesiser, click on the audio clip below.

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3.2 Mobile accessibilty

A few mobile devices have accessibility features and there are some specialist computers designed with a disabled-only accessible interface; for example a portable computer with Braille-only input and output. We will concentrate on the most widely used products: that is software and hardware added to a PC, most often using a Windows platform.


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2.4 Activity task 2

Return to your list of challenging activities that you created in ‘Accessibility and disability’. In the light of your reading would you change the way that you have expressed your ideas?

You might like to use the Comments section below to post your list and comment on other people's lists.

Discuss the similarities and differences between the language and terminology you have each used. Try to find evidence on websites written by disabled people to reinforce your arguments.
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Learning outcomes

The learning outcomes for this unit are to:

  • gain a better idea of the principles of accelerated learning;

  • develop some techniques to use in your classroom;

  • plan how to change your way of teaching to use these techniques.


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5 Further information

The Scottish Government: Education & Training Curriculum for Excellence

www.ltscotland.org.uk/curriculumforexcellence/whatiscfe/purposes.asp

Learning and Teaching Scotland Literacy

www.ltscotland.org.uk/literacy/index.asp

Department for children, schools and families: Standards Site

www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primary/


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5.1 Introduction

One of the key differences between Open Learning, where the ‘student’ is remote from the teacher, and a learner just reading a text book or looking up information for themselves on the internet, is the need to encourage active learning. Whether the material is text, online quizzes or audio-visual elements, the learner should not be a passive absorber of information but actively interacting with the resources. This is grounded in views of how people learn. But I have made some assum
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4.3 Formats

OpenLearn units can be downloaded or taken away in several formats:

  • Print Format

  • Unit Content XML

  • Unit Content RSS

  • OU XML Package

  • IMS Content Package

  • IMS Common Cartridge

  • Plain Zip

  • Moodle Backup

At the asset level the major formats you will find are:

  • text in XML or PDF

  • animation
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Acknowledgements

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Author details

Sue Platt has been a school governor for 21 years, at both primary and sec
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References

Baird C., Bostock J., Brunton P., Cousins L., Gann N., Hammerton R., Reeves G. and Shaw C., (2002) The Governor's Handbook, pfp publishing, London.
Creese M. & Earley P., (1999) Improving Schools and Governing Bodies, Routledge, London.
DfES (2003), National Training Programme for New Governors, Module 2.
Gann N.,
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1.7. Resources for further study

Books

  • Potter, S. (1950) Our Language, Penguin.

  • McCrum, R., MacNeil, R., and Cran, W. (2003) The Story of English, Penguin.

  • Stevenson, V. (1983) Words, Mcdonald.

  • Bryson, B. (1991) Mother Tongue, Penguin.

  • Any title by David Crystal.

Reference books

  • Onions, C.T. (1966) The Oxford
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1 What makes a good book?

I met a dragon face to face

I met a dragon face to face

The year when I was ten,

I took a trip to outer space,

I braved a pirate's den,

I wrestled with a wicked troll,

And fought a great white shark,

I trailed a rabbit down a hole,

I hunted for a snark.

I stowed aboard a submarine,

I opened magic doors,

I travelled in a time machine,
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