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2.1 Stakeholders and activities

Current enterprise systems are large and complex, and their construction involves many stakeholders, including customers, developers and users. Software development processes have emerged over the years to harness the complexity of software construction. A software development process describes an approach to building, deploying and maintaining software (Larman, 2002).

The advantages of following a well-understood process are many. From a manager's viewpoint, it is crucial to hav
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6.12 Self-assessment questions

SAQ 1 Actors

  • (a) Explain why the actors in a use case diagram do not represent actual individuals.

  • (b) Suggest a guideline that will help you decide whether or not to include
    Author(s): The Open University

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6.11 Issues with use cases

There can be a tendency to make diagrams too complex. You can reduce the complexity of your use case diagram by:

  • redrawing it at a higher level of abstraction;

  • splitting it up into smaller modules, which the UML calls packages.

In the case of the hotel chain, we might partition our model into the following three packages:

  • reservations;

  • checking guests in and o
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6.2.1 Using a sales website

A visitor to a sales website is usually able to:

  • browse through the details of the goods for sale;

  • search for a particular product;

  • check on the availability of goods;

  • read reviews of the products by other purchasers;

  • register to receive newsletters which detail new items of interest;

  • buy products using credit or debit cards, and in some cases, other payment methods s
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3.4 What has any of this to do with computers?

Human beings invented computers because we have a compelling interest in data. We seek to turn our perceptions of sensations into symbols, and then to store, analyse, process, and turn these symbols into something else: information. Modern computers, with their enormous storage capacity and incredible processing power, are an ideal tool for doing this. They allow us to acquire data, code it in terms of signs, store, retrieve, or combine it with other data. Sophisticated o
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Introduction

School governors need to be involved in the monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools. But what areas should you be monitoring and how can you ensure that monitoring is effective. This course will help you assess these matters and also look at the kind of evidence you should be sourcing, and how that evidence should be evaluated.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of postgraduate study in Author(s): The Open University

Introduction

This course examines four of the ‘grand theories’ of child development: behaviourism, social learning, constructivism and social constructivism.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of Level 2 study in Education.


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Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Introduction

This course introduces you to the concepts of:

  • open educational resources (OERs)
  • issues involved in the creation, use and re-use, and pedagogy of OERs
  • a range of tools and media to support you in developing your own teaching and learning practices.

It will provide you with the skills and confidence to engage in further OER work as both creator and user.

Find out more about studying with The Open University by 
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Introduction

This course introduces you to analysing academic writing and, in particular, the way an article might be structured to clearly explain an investigation to other researchers. It explores the issue of observation of children and young people across the age range birth to 18 years using qualitative observation approaches in small-scale studies.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of level 3 study in Author(s): The Open University

Learning and practice: Agency and identities
This free course, Learning and practice: Agency and identities, introduces you to a sociocultural approach to understanding and analysing learning in educational institutions, the home and the workplace. First published on Thu, 14 Apr 2016 as Author(s): Creator not set

3.11.2 Answering a question in exam conditions

Write out a few exam questions on pieces of card, shuffle them and then pick out a question at random and try to answer it in the time the exam allows. Doing this can give you a sense of the amount you can reasonably write in an exam. You should also get an idea of whether or not you are being too ambitious about what you can cover within the time constraints of an exam. You should be wary of overshooting the timeslot for an exam answer, and not leaving enough time to complete the remaining a
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3.6.2 Making learning posters

You may find that, rather than reducing notes to small summary cards, you prefer to produce large posters detailing key points on particular topics. Use pattern, colour, diagrams and drawings in your posters, and display them in parts of your home where you might have an opportunity to gaze at them for some time and absorb the information. One student we know put them around the bathroom! If you have a strong visual memory, then lively posters really help the remembering process.


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7.2 Learning from feedback

This is actually quite a difficult thing for any student to do. It is most effective when your assignment is returned, but by then you may have moved on to the next part of the course. Even so, you do need to make time to re-visit your assignment when it is returned and take note of your tutor's comments. It is the one time when your tutor is able to give feedback and advice to you as an individual student so it is well worth taking time to really absorb their comments. Try to separate
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4.1 Preparing

In the preparation phase you should pause before starting a new section of work and think about it as a whole. What needs to be covered? What are the various components of this block of work? What are the learning objectives or outcomes? What will you need to know and be able to do at the end of it? What is required in the assignment?

There are two main activities during this phase, both directly related to your course work and assignment:

  • analysing
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2.5 Poor environment

Were you held back at all in your reading by the environment you were reading in? Were you reading in bed, in the bath, sitting at a desk, on the bus, or in the park? Any of these could be a good time and place, but did it actually work for you?

Were you able to maintain your concentration fo
Author(s): The Open University

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References

de Bono, E. (1999) de Bono's Thinking Course. London, BBC Books
Entwistle, N. (1994) quoted in Supporting Open Learners Reader (1996) Milton Keynes, The Open University
Holmes, O. W. quoted in Robbins, A. (1991) Awaken the giant within. New York, Simon & Schuster
Rice, M. (1999) Observer Magazine, 7 November
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7.2 Other ways of structuring thought

Distinguishing between generals and particulars can help you in reading, note taking and writing for your course. But, looking at things in a hierarchical general-particular way is only one approach to giving structure to ideas and information.

Activity 14

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5.2 What have I learned about my knowledge?

It is worth spending some time thinking back over what you have learned from the unit materials. The text and video have presented you with some challenging ideas and a wide range of perspectives. You have been asked to apply this to your own learning for change. As you look back over these, and at your responses to the activities, you will be reminded of the ground you have covered.

It may be helpful to think briefly about the perspectives that were the focus of each section:


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5.1 Introduction

You have almost reached the end of Learning to change and we hope that you will continue to use learning to achieve change in your life. This section is an opportunity to reflect on what you have learned as a result of doing the unit. ‘Reflecting backwards’ is an important part of learning because it helps you to be clear about what you have learned. Looking back also enables you to hold on to what you have learned after the unit finishes. This means that you can ‘reflect
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4.7 Conclusion

We return to what we said at the beginning of this section by reminding you that the action plan is not something that is set in stone, but something that you can return to again and again; revising your goals, or the way you might reach them, in response to the learning you acquire in the process of ticking off the steps you have worked through. As we learn, we change, and as we change, our priorities may also change.

This does not mean that it is not worthwhile drawing up a plan. Havi
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