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Tensions run high along ceasefire line in eastern Ukraine
As a shaky truce holds, the atmosphere remains tense along the ceasefire line in eastern Ukraine. Vanessa Johnston reports. Subscribe: http://smarturl.it/reuterssubscribe More Breaking News: http://smarturl.it/BreakingNews Reuters tells the world's stories like no one else. As the largest international multimedia news provider, Reuters provides coverage around the globe and across topics including business, financial, national, and international news. For over 160 years, Reuters has maintained
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{Suresh 822 } Useful sentences
{Suresh 822 } Useful sentences Upyogee kaay(उपयोगी वाक्य ) गार्ड के सीटी देने पर, रेलगाड़ी चल पडी | ( Guard key seetee seney par, railgaadee chal padee.) The train started […]

Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Science. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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4.2 Summary

  1. Glycogen metabolism is controlled by two enzymes, glycogen synthase (mediating glycogen synthesis) and phosphorylase (mediating glycogen breakdown).

  2. Three pathways converge in the regulation of glycogen synthase: cAMP/PKA and GSK-3β are negative regulators, whereas ISPK/PP1G positively regulate the activity of glycogen synthase.

  3. Insulin and adrenalin have opposite effects on glycogen synthesis: insulin promotes glycogen synthes
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References

Bennett, P. and Calman, K. (eds) (1999) Risk Communication and Public Health, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Courthauld, C. (2003) ‘The Critics’, The Observer on Sunday, 21 December.
Deer, B. (2004) ‘The truth behind the crisis’, Sunday Times, London, February 22.
Fitzpatrick, M. (2004) MMR and Autism:
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11.7 References for Reading 4

Horton, R. (2004) ‘The lessons of MMR’, The Lancet, 363, 6 March 2004, pp 747–749 Elsevier. Copyright © 2004 Elsevier.

  1. Murch, SH, Anthony, A, Cassen, DH, et al. ‘Retraction of an interpretation’. Lancet 2004; 363:750.

  2. Wakefield, AJ, Murch, SH, Anthony, A, et al. ‘Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children’. Lancet 1998; 351:637
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11.6 Publishing controversial new ideas

Horton, R. (2004) ‘The lessons of MMR’, The Lancet, 363, 6 March 2004, pp 747–749 Elsevier. Copyright © 2004 Elsevier.

It seems obvious now that had we appreciated the full context in which the work reported in the 1998 Lancet paper by Wakefield and colleagues was done, publication would not have taken place in the way that it did. These are difficult judgments to make in hindsight. For example, our sensitivity to potential conflicts of interest is very much
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11.5 Public engagement

Horton, R. (2004) ‘The lessons of MMR’, The Lancet, 363, 6 March 2004, pp 747–749 Elsevier. Copyright © 2004 Elsevier.

Many doctors and public-health officials have been frustrated by the debate over MMR. I have shared this frustration. One newspaper fancifully called our recent statement about the 1998 Lancet paper part of an “orchestrated campaign” to bolster MMR programmes.12 In fact, the events leading to today's partial retraction were sud
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11.4 Vaccine safety

Horton, R. (2004) ‘The lessons of MMR’, The Lancet, 363, 6 March 2004, pp 747–749 Elsevier. Copyright © 2004 Elsevier.

In a review of the unintended effects associated with MMR, Jefferson and colleagues10 found that the reporting of safety outcomes in MMR vaccine studies was inadequate. Here is a constantly repeated scenario in health-technology assessment (another example: the row over the safety of calcium-channel blockers). A product undergoes limited
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11.3 Research integrity

Horton, R. (2004) ‘The lessons of MMR’, The Lancet, 363, 6 March 2004, pp 747–749 Elsevier. Copyright © 2004 Elsevier.

The latest debate surrounding Wakefield and colleagues’ paper has been enormously confusing. Public inquiries have been sought into the way ethics committees operate, how the legal services commission makes its decisions, and even, once again, into the safety of vaccines. A preliminary investigation by the UK's General Medical Council is underway.
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11.2 Autism research

Horton, R. (2004) ‘The lessons of MMR’, The Lancet, 363, 6 March 2004, pp 747–749 Elsevier. Copyright © 2004 Elsevier.

In 1943, Leo Kanner described 11 children with a condition that differed “markedly and uniquely from anything reported so far”.4 He believed that the characteristics of these children, the fundamental feature of whom was their “inability to relate themselves in the ordinary way to people and situations from the beginning of life”,
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2.3 Movie 6 - Jupiter Hot Spot

Jupiter Hot Spot

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In this movie c
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2.3 Movie 5 - Small Storms Near Great Red Spot

Small Storms Near Great Red Spot

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<
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2.3 Movie 4 - Planetwide Colour Movie

Planetwide Colour Movie

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The first
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11 Primary science

Primary science has grown in importance in many countries in recent years and all programmes have faced similar problems of improving the science knowledge of primary teachers, lack of equipment, and, just as significantly, lack of agreement about what sort of science should be taught to young pupils. To illustrate some of the similar issues that have confronted policy makers in many areas of the world, let's look at the establishment of primary science in the UK.

Before 1988, England,
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10 ‘Science for all?’ A look at some contexts

The following statement is from the science National Curriculum in England published in 2000.

The importance of science

Science stimulates and excites pupils’ curiosity about phenomena and events in the world around them. It also satisfies this curiosity with knowledge. Because science links direct practical experience with ideas, it can engage learne
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5.6.3 Conformation and crystallinity

If there are key connections between the chain configuration and crystallisation, you might also expect some more subtle effects from rotation about chain bonds. After all, polymer chains must be able to twist into the regular conformation demanded for crystal structures (Figure 57(a)). And what influence will rotation have on
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5.6.2 Structure and crystallinity

In addition to the structural constraints mentioned in Section 2, where tacticity and geometrical isomerism control whether or not a polymer chain can crystallise, molecular mass and copolymerization are other important variables which can influence crystallising properties. A related effect is plasticization where a low molecular mass mat
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5.6.1 Morphology of polymer crystallites

The fundamental unit of structure formed by crystalline polymers which is accessible using the optical microscope is the spherulite. Isolated spherulites are formed easily at relatively slow spherulite growth rates such as those exhibited by polypropylene and isotactic polystyrene. Unlike aramid fibres where the degree of crystallisation is close to 100 per cent (Author(s): The Open University

5.6 Crystallisation of polymers

The major benefits of crystallisation of chain molecules to end users are:

  1. since Tm > Tg, the maximum service temperatures are higher than with amorphous polymers;

  2. above Tg , the modulus of a crystalline polymer is higher than that of an amorphous polymer owing to reinforcement and physical crosslinking of the amorphous matrix by the crystallites.

Both effects are
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