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7.5 Materials costs

There will be many categories of materials, supplies and consumables used in a project. Once again, the materials that are in constant use and easily and ‘freely’ available in an organisation might be overlooked in costing the project. For example, it is easy to assume that stationery will be available in much the same way as it is for day-to-day work. However, a project is a bounded activity, and if you are to understand the full cost of achieving the outcomes, you will need to know how
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7.2 Revenues

Projects vary in how they are eventually financed. They can be purely commercial projects from which the products are sold at market prices, and so eventually the revenues they generate are expected to cover the costs and provide an operating profit. In the meantime, development costs and working capital have to be financed from share and loan capital raised by the organisation, the cost of which will be met from the profit the project makes. At the other extreme there are projects, in both f
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7.1 Introduction

Planning a project includes preparation of financial and related projections. Frequently, these will be used to:

  • weigh up the economic feasibility of the project;

  • obtain approval from a higher authority in the organisation for the project to proceed;

  • set boundaries of delegation or empowerment in a formal budget;

  • provide the basis for accounting for project revenues and costs;

  • provide a means
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5.3 Team structure and responsibilities

Teams have great difficulty in working effectively if they are too large to work together conveniently. Six to eight people is often considered to be about right. Where the project needs more staff to deliver all of the outcomes, the structure could consist of a number of teams, each with a team leader. In some projects there may not be a team but, instead, a number of individuals or groups making a specialist contribution at an appropriate time and a method for co-ordinating these inputs bec
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3.3 Using a logic diagram to identify key stages

To use a bottom-up approach to planning, the activity schedule is best compiled by drawing on the collective experience and knowledge of the project team that is going to carry out the tasks. Grouping their ideas into related tasks will remove duplication and you can then start to identify activities which have to run in series and those that could run concurrently. Some tasks have to be sequential because they are dependent on one another: you can't put the roof on a house until you have wal
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Introduction

This course helps you to explore the extent to which death and dying in western societies are medical events and what aspects of death and dying might be neglected as a consequence. The course covers the way that such things as medicine provide the context of the experiences associated with the end of life.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of level 2 study in Health & Social Care. If you found this interesting, take a look at the Open University module Death, Dying & Bereaveme
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References

Cohen, S. (2001) States of Denial: Knowing About Atrocities and Suffering, Cambridge, Polity Press.
Ritchin, F. (1989) ‘What is Magnum?’ in Manchester, W (ed.) In Our Time, London, Andre Deutsch.

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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

This extract is taken from D218: Social policy: welfare, power and diversity, produced by the BBC on behalf of the Open University.

© 2007 The Open University.

Course image: Daniel Kulinski in Flickr made available under Author(s): The Open University

2.1 The impact of a power

Here is a tale based on an ancient Eastern legend, which gives an idea of the impact of raising a number to a power.

Example 6

A long time ago there lived a very rich king whose son's life was saved by a poor old beggar woman. The king was naturally very grateful to the woman,
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6.2.3 Tastes and attitudes

In contrast to the neoclassical assumptions of given tastes and attitudes, the segmented labour market theory treats both of these as endogenous. In other words, the prejudices that some groups hold against others, the attitudes that some disadvantaged groups have about work and so on are not taken as given. There are reasons why these prejudices and attitudes develop as they do and understanding these is essential in order to understand how the labour market operates to the detriment of thes
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Models and modelling
Models are mechanisms for communication. This free course, Models and modelling, looks at what a model is and what the process of modelling is about. The techniques discussed here are applicable to a wide range of systems and have one thing in common: they are all commonly used diagramming techniques. The five techniques are: data flow diagrams, use case modelling, activity diagrams, entityrelationship diagrams and state machines. Author(s): Creator not set

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Systems diagramming
Pictures speak louder than words. But how can you use diagrams to help you? This free course, Systems diagramming, looks at how diagrams can be used to represent information and ideas about complex situations. You will learn how to read, draw and present diagrams to help illustrate how ideas or processes are connected. First published o
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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4.2 Index

It is not practical for the search engine to go looking at every page on the Web whenever it receives a search request. Instead, the search engine consults a vast index to the Web. This index is prepared in advance and is stored as a database to make retrieval as efficient as possible. The index of a search site is just like the index of a book – it contains a list of words, each with a reference to the page on which that word was found. The reference to the original page is, of course, a U
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1.1 What this course is about

In this course you will be looking at information that can be found on the Web. You may already have explored the Web and discovered what an enormous amount of information it contains. Alternatively you may be a newcomer to the Web. Either way, this course will help you to develop your skills in accessing online information.

Here are some things that I regularly use the Web for:

  • Finding phone numbers

  • Getting train times and booking
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7.4 Using flowcharts to describe a task (contd)

Now consider what happens when you are weighing, for example, flour on a set of scales. You slowly add more flour to the scalepan until you reach the desired weight. As you do this the display constantly changes, showing the weight increasing as you add more flour. To do this, the scales’ computer must repeatedly examine the input and update the display each time it does so. The flowcharts in figures Author(s): The Open University

Word and image
Why does the way a page looks influence how we interpret the information it contains? This free course, Word and image, will examine how typography and images can be combined to improve literary creativity and allow a document to communicate more readily with the reader. First published on Wed, 18 Jan 2017 as Author(s): Creator not set

Accessibility of eLearning
It is part of a teaching professional's skills to understand the needs of a diverse population of students. This free course, Accessibility of eLearning, introduces the challenges for disabled students who may use computers in different ways when taking part in eLearning or may need alternative teaching methods. It covers the technology and techniques used by disabled students, the adjustments to teaching methods that might be reasonable, design decisions which affect the accessibility of eLearn
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Translation as a career
This free course explores translation as a career. During the course you will meet professional translators discussing their work and reflect on what they say. You will assess your own language level and find out how translators maintain their language skills. You will also engage in a short translation activity. First published on Thu, 05 Jul 2018 as Author(s): Creator not set

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