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2.4 How thick is Europa's ice?
The new discipline of astrobiology – that is, the science of searching for extraterrestrial life – is not only rapdly growing, but has also captured the public imagination. This unit examines the emergence of icy satellites of distant planets as potential sites of extraterrestrial life. Focussing on the case study of Jupiter's moon Europa, the unit looks at the potential for life there, and speculates on the ethics of searching for life elsewhere in the solar system.
Author(s): The Open University

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2.2 Transportation disasters

Movement of people and goods was one of the main outcomes of the industrial revolution in Britain in the late-eighteenth century, starting with canals, which were displaced gradually by railways. Industrialisation came through innovation in manufacture, especially the development of mass-produced materials such as cast-iron. While the material had been known and used since the Elizabethan period, it could only be made in small quantities by smelting iron ore with charcoal.

The Darby fam
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6.1 Evolutionary development
This unit is for designers, engineers, technologists and anyone interested in designing and inventing. It is also for managers and consumers interested in innovation and technical change. The unit will show you how design and innovation can create a more sustainable future. It will also help you understand how innovation comes about and will encourage thinking about environmental and social challenges for the future.
Author(s): The Open University

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5.15 Intellectual property and patents
This unit is for designers, engineers, technologists and anyone interested in designing and inventing. It is also for managers and consumers interested in innovation and technical change. The unit will show you how design and innovation can create a more sustainable future. It will also help you understand how innovation comes about and will encourage thinking about environmental and social challenges for the future.
Author(s): The Open University

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5.12 Process innovation
This unit is for designers, engineers, technologists and anyone interested in designing and inventing. It is also for managers and consumers interested in innovation and technical change. The unit will show you how design and innovation can create a more sustainable future. It will also help you understand how innovation comes about and will encourage thinking about environmental and social challenges for the future.
Author(s): The Open University

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3.3 Deism
This unit examines Hume's reasons for being complacent in the face of death, as these are laid out in his suppressed essay of 1755, ‘Of the immortality of the soul’. More generally, they examine some of the shifts in attitude concerning death and religious belief that were taking place in Europe at the end of the eighteenth century, through examination of this and other short essays.
Author(s): The Open University

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2.1 Working through the section
This unit examines Hume's reasons for being complacent in the face of death, as these are laid out in his suppressed essay of 1755, ‘Of the immortality of the soul’. More generally, they examine some of the shifts in attitude concerning death and religious belief that were taking place in Europe at the end of the eighteenth century, through examination of this and other short essays.
Author(s): The Open University

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References

Anon. (1861) ‘Carte de visite portraits’, The Photographic News, vol.5, no. 150, pp.341–2.
Anon. (1863) ‘Photography and bad taste’, The Photographic News, vol.7, no.240, 10 April, pp. 174–5. Reprinted from the London Review.
Anon. (1884) ‘By the bye – the stronger will’, The Photographic News, vol.28, no. 1346, p.
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6.2.2 Informational content

Obviously for the purpose of historical record, portraits taken in the context of the family home can be more informative than those taken inside the studio with its make-believe settings.

Activity 24

Compare the children
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2.1 An introduction to khyal singing
Improvisation and composition are words frequently used in the western world to describe the creation of music. But are they really two distinct processes, or are they aspects of the same phenomenon? In this unit we will explore the relationships between the two using examples of Asian music to help us clarify the concepts.
Author(s): The Open University

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4.1 Initial assessment
Does the recruitment and selection process fill you with dread? Discrimination and equal opportunities legislation can make this area feel like a minefield. If you are faced with appointing a new employee, then this unit will provide a straight-forward guide to the process: from writing job descriptions to finally assessing who to appoint.
Author(s): The Open University

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2 Effective recruitment and selection
Does the recruitment and selection process fill you with dread? Discrimination and equal opportunities legislation can make this area feel like a minefield. If you are faced with appointing a new employee, then this unit will provide a straight-forward guide to the process: from writing job descriptions to finally assessing who to appoint.
Author(s): The Open University

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Activity 8: Exploring cultural dimensions on Hofstede's website
We know that culture guides the way people behave in society as a whole. But culture also plays a key role in organisations, which have their own unique set of values, beliefs and ways of doing business. This unit explores the concepts of national and organisational culture and the factors that influence both.
Author(s): The Open University

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Activity 7: Hofstede's way of thinking about national culture
We know that culture guides the way people behave in society as a whole. But culture also plays a key role in organisations, which have their own unique set of values, beliefs and ways of doing business. This unit explores the concepts of national and organisational culture and the factors that influence both.
Author(s): The Open University

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4.2 A process perspective on organisations

The overall transformation process can be broken down into a series of micro-processes. Attention to processes within organisations can provide a powerful tool for understanding organisational performance. In the extract below, David Garvin discusses how attention to work processes can yield new insights for managers about the ways in which performance may be improved.


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2.2 Postscript

A headline-grabbing weekend of ‘midsummer madness’, when six murders occurred in (parts of) Glasgow over the weekend of 5–6 August 1995, reinforced the ongoing nature of contestation and debate about the issues discussed in the programme. As noted in The Scotsman (8 August 1995), the legacy of the imagery of No Mean City was quickly resurrected by the press – for example, ‘a darker side to that much-vaunted transformation of Glasgow from No Mean City to Cultu
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2.1 How the programme progresses

The programme takes the form of a visit to Glasgow. We talked to people and asked about their image(s) of Glasgow and whether these had changed – what was the ‘old’ image; what is the ‘new’; how has it changed; what will it be like in another ten years?

The five main participants have different experiences of Glasgow and these are represented in the images which they hold and aspects of the city's character which they highlight. The themes and ideas behind the progra
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1.3 Constructing a new image

The image ‘Glasgow's miles better’ was deliberately constructed by the City Council, avowedly to make Glaswegians feel better about Glasgow but in fact largely on behalf of business. But it begged a question – ‘miles better for whom?’ Certainly, the city centre was better for shoppers and visitors and the new roads were literally ‘miles better’ for motorists, but the spiralling problems of the housing schemes provided stark counter-images. In other words, as with
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1.2 The hard side of Glasgow

Prior to its currently projected image of dynamism, Glasgow was regarded as the place which best illustrated all that was wrong with the modern industrial city: ‘Once called the “second city of the British Empire” because of its size and industrial might, Glasgow had sunk so low that even the locals disdained it’ (Bryson, 1989).

Figure 2
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