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Activity 9: Go shopping with Geert Hofstede
We know that culture guides the way people behave in society as a whole. But culture also plays a key role in organisations, which have their own unique set of values, beliefs and ways of doing business. This unit explores the concepts of national and organisational culture and the factors that influence both.
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • describe how photographs affect a globalised industry;

  • understand the global dimension of the Scottish oil industry and how that has affected the local population.

Acknowledgements

This chapter is taken from Living Political Ideas (eds) Geoff Andrews and Micheal Saward published in association with Edinburgh University Press (2005) as part of a series of books which forms part of the course DD203 Power, Dissent, Equality: Understanding Contemporary Politics.

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Activity 3: Your own national culture
We know that culture guides the way people behave in society as a whole. But culture also plays a key role in organisations, which have their own unique set of values, beliefs and ways of doing business. This unit explores the concepts of national and organisational culture and the factors that influence both.
Author(s): The Open University

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5 Legacy fundraising
Legacy fundraising, big-gift seeking are all part of the professional fundraiser's role. This unit will help you to gain the skills necessary to persuade individuals to become donors. How do you change people's ideas about methods of giving, moving them from casual street donations to regular direct debit giving?
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3.5 Building the relationship: developing your donors
Legacy fundraising, big-gift seeking are all part of the professional fundraiser's role. This unit will help you to gain the skills necessary to persuade individuals to become donors. How do you change people's ideas about methods of giving, moving them from casual street donations to regular direct debit giving?
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit, you should be able to:

  • understand the process of political devolution in the UK;

  • relate this process to both historical developments and to the wider context of contemporary events in Europe;

  • practise the skill of reading, summarising and evaluating academic arguments;

  • engage more actively as a citizen in relevant political debates (especially if you are a citizen of Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland!).


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Introduction

This unit, which contains material from the current Open University second level Politics course DD203 Power, Equality and Dissent, is pitched at the intermediate level. It should take you about 8 hours to study if you attempt the recommended exercises and make summary notes of its key points. Doing so will allow you to practise the crucial academic skill of summary and précis – extracting the gist of an argument – which will be of particular help if you go on to study in rel
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Acknowledgements

The material below is contained in Social Psychology Matters, Wendy Holloway, Helen Lucey and Anne Phoenix, published in association with Open University Press, 2007.

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2 Understanding the importance of thinking skills
Diagrams, mind-maps, tables, graphs, time lines, flow charts, sequence diagrams, decision trees: all can be used to organise thought. This unit will introduce you to a variety of thinking skills. Asking and answering questions is at the heart of high-quality thinking. Questions naturally arise from the desire to know and learn about things and may be the starting point for a journey of understanding.
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6.9 Finishing
Effective communication is the key to a successful presentation. This unit will provide you with a systematic approach to develop the necessary skills. It is important to understand that effective presentation skills can be practised and learned. It is the content of your presentation, and the simple delivery of clear and reasoned arguments, which will help you to achieve your objectives.
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this study unit you will be able to:

  • demonstrate an understanding of fundamental aspects of the theory and methodology underpinning phenomenological psychology;

  • critique simplistic mind–body, individual–social and agency–structure dualisms and appreciate how the body, self and society are interconnected;

  • describe how phenomenological psychologists conceptualise the body.

Introduction

The body has traditionally been treated as a biological object in psychology. However, some psychologists believe there is more to our bodies than that as they recognise that it is through the body that we relate to other people and the world about us. This unit explores one particular theoretical perspective on embodiment: the phenomenological psychological perspective. This is an approach to psychology that acknowledges the social nature of embodiment, placing embodied experience centre sta
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under aCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licencelicence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

The content acknowledged below is Prop
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Further reading

Styles, E.A. (1997) The Psychology of Attention, Hove, Psychology Press. A very readable textbook, which covers and extends the topics introduced in this unit.

Pashler, H. (ed.) (1998) Attention, Hove, Psychology Press. An edited book, with contributors from North America and the UK. Topics are dealt with in rather more depth than in the Styles book.

6 Concluding thoughts

We seem to have come a long way and covered a great deal of ground since I approached this subject by explaining that a mechanism must exist to help us focus on one sound out of many. That clearly is one function of attention, but attention seems to have other functions too. The results of visual search experiments show that attention is a vital factor in joining together the features that make up an object, and the experiences of brain-damaged patients suggest that this feature-assembly role
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5.4 Summary of Section 5

Many familiar themes have re-emerged in this section, together with the recognition that attention is involved in the assembly of remembered material as well as of current perceptions.

  • Attention is associated with the generation of perceptual objects.

  • In addition to being an essential part of external stimulus processing, attention influences remembered experiences.

  • ERP data show that cortical signals derived from una
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5.1 Introduction

Modern techniques for revealing where and when different parts of the brain become active have recently provided a window on the processes of attention. For example, one of these brain-scanning techniques, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has been used to show the behaviour of an area of the brain that responds to speech. It turns out also to become activated in a person viewing lips making speech movements in the absence of sound. For this to happen there must be connecti
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4.4 Summary of Section 4

We have seen that attentive processes will ‘work hard’ to unite information into a coherent whole.

  • Even spatially separate visual and auditory stimuli can be joined if they appear to be synchronous (the ventriloquism effect).

  • When stimuli are not synchronous the system attempts to order the segments of the stimuli independently, resulting in distraction and lost information.

  • It is a ‘bottleneck’ in t
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