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4.3.1 ‘Players in the game’
Are you always the quiet one when it comes to group discussion? This unit will help you improve your working relationships with other people in groups of three or more. This unit also deals with project life cycles, project management and the role of the leader.
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Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

Prepared for the Course Team by Simon Buckingham Shum

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4.13.1 Standards and classification

ICTs depend on myriad standards in order to provide interconnectivity. If this was a computer science course, you would be learning about standard network protocols which enable computers to communicate with each other or with other devices, whether over the internet or from your computer to a network printer. Standards enable us to send email and browse websites without worrying about the underlying mechanisms (until they fail, forcing us to focus on the tool instead of our work).


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4.13 Technologies and explicit knowledge

Knowledge-based systems have the ability to analyse specific kinds of information in order to take action. Since we have earlier defined knowledge as arising out of the interpretation of information as mediated by representations, we can claim that in a limited sense such systems can ‘know’ things: they have a representation of part of the world, and they have some rules that allow them to analyse that representation, from which they can decide on a course of action. In that sense, t
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4.2.1 Mapping who knows what continued

Box 4.2 Knowledge sharing at Hewlett-Packard

One knowledge management initiative involves HP educators. Bruce Karney is a member of the infrastructure team for the Corporate Education organisation, part of HP's Personnel function. Karney estimates that there are more than 2,000 educators or trainers
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2.3 Codification and formalisation

Much of the knowledge management literature argues the importance of making tacit knowledge explicit, and then codified. For instance, an explicit goal when auditing intellectual capital is to identify human capital as one of the key assets that give an organisation its true value. Some organisations are realising that a large quantity of their ‘assets’ leave the office for home each evening, perhaps never to return, and as a consequence want to capture these in a less vulnerable for
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1.4 Aims

The aims of this unit are:

  • to develop an understanding of the relationships between information, interpretation, knowledge and computer-based representations

  • to summarise the range of different technologies that are available and on the horizon, and how they relate to different kinds of knowledge processes

  • to provide frameworks for thinking about technologies for managing knowledge, and for evaluating the claims made
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1.3 Scope of this unit

ICT technical developments are announced on almost a monthly basis, so this unit cannot provide an up-to-the-minute snapshot of knowledge management technologies. While we describe many examples of relevant technologies, it is important not to let these particular examples constrain how you think about the possibilities; they are simply examples of commercial products and point to emerging technologies in research laboratories.

Our emphasis, therefore, is on providing conceptual framewo
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the following issues, explaining in your own words, with appropriate examples:

  • the importance of representation, interpretation and formalisation in relation to ICT and managing knowledge;

  • the concept of a ‘community of practice’ in relation to ICT;

  • the main functions that ICT can play in helping to manage knowledge;

  • the potential, an
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Acknowledgements

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

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References

Brown, A. (1995) Organisational Culture, London, Pitman.
Crace, J. (2000) ‘Feel at home with a job abroad’, Guardian, 14 October.
Drennan, D. (1992) Transforming Company Culture, London, McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (1980) Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work Related Values, Lon
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4.1 Facial expression

Facial expression was considered the most crucial element to success in painted portraiture. It was the vehicle through which intangible qualities of mind and soul were conveyed. In painting the idea was to achieve the ideal expression, a synthesis of character and the spiritual essence of being. Although cameras could portray any number of expressions with relative ease – an advantage of the machine over manual practice – early portrait photographers continued to believe in the ideal exp
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Activity 1

Click on 'View document' below to open and read part of Audrey Linkman's article on 'Photography and art theory', then answer the questions.


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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • explain the relationship between research on national cultures and the development of the culture perspective in business studies;

  • describe some of the problems of working in, and doing business with, businesses in other countries;

  • offer a definition of organisational culture;

  • recognise the factors that constitute or influence the culture of a business.

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Introduction

Culture is just one perspective that can help us to understand more about a business. 'Business culture' is not just about how others see a business, but also about how the individuals within an organisation understand it. In this unit we explore how the concept of culture developed from research into differences between cultures at a national level. It is possible to see, or ‘feel’, that one business is different from another, and that this involves more than just how it presents it
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Acknowledgements

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All materials included in this unit are derived from content originated at the Open University.

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Form vs. Function
Students model and design the sound environment for a room. They analyze the sound performance of different materials that symbolize wallpaper, thick curtains, and sound-absorbing panels. Referring to the results of this analysis, they then design another room based on certain specifications and test their design.
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Snakes Go to Great Lengths to Fool Predators-Find Out How!
Watch how a none poisonous snake use its tongue to trick predators, and a double headed snake having the same features of its tail as its head(Running Time 2:00).                
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All materials included in this unit are derived from content originated at the Open University.


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Studying changing faces in the solar system
In this middle-school level activity, students work as NASA scientists to make repeated observations of our Sun and the planets to determine their rotation rates. First, students create a playground model of rotation and create representative diagrams. Students then observe NASA images of sunspots to determine the rotation rate of our Sun. In the last phase, students download NASA movies from the Internet and measure rotation rates for objects in the solar system.
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