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2.1 Tables

Experiments or surveys usually generate a lot of information from which it is possible to draw conclusions. Such information is called data. Data are often presented in newspapers or books.

One convenient way to present data is in a table. For instance, the nutrition panel on the back of a food packet:

Nutrition Information

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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • appreciate the concept of force, and understand and model forces such as weight, tension and friction;

  • model objects as particles or as rigid bodies, and the forces that act on an object in equilibrium;

  • use model strings, rods, pulleys and pivots in modelling systems involving forces;

  • understand and use torques;

  • model and solve a variety of problems involving systems in eq
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1.2: Converting to geometric form

You have seen how any vector given in geometric form, in terms of magnitude and direction, can be written in component form. You will now see how conversion in the opposite sense may be achieved, starting from component form. In other words, given a vector a = a 1 i + a 2 j, what are its magnitude |a| and direction θ?

The first part of this question is dealt with using Pythagoras’ Theorem: the magnitude of a v
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2 Your own mathematics

It is crucial to remember that you are a learner of mathematics as well as a teacher. In this unit you will be asked to undertake some mathematical tasks. The aim of these tasks is not to improve your mathematics, but to give you experience of doing mathematics for yourself—experience that you can reflect upon subsequently. The reflection is used to develop your awareness of the ways that learners deal with mathematical tasks, and how learners' mathematical thinking is influenced by the way
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1.2.1 To know or to do?

The so-called ‘content/process’ debate in mathematics involves discussion of the relative importance of content and process in mathematics. It originated as part of a discussion about the nature of mathematics, particularly of school mathematics, and of the purposes for which mathematics is learned. Identifying content and process in mathematics draws attention to the idea that mathematics is a human activity.

As a teacher of mathematics in the UK, you are faced with a national curr
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1.4.3 R is for Relevance

Relevance is an important factor to consider when you are evaluating information. It isn’t so much a property of the information itself but of the relationship it has with your question or your ‘information need’. For example, if you are writing an essay about the Consumer Price Index a book or website about how the Ancient Egyptians drew circles would not be relevant. So there are a number of ways in which a piece of information may not be relevant to your query:

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1.3.5 Journals

Journals and articles written by academics or experts are an excellent source of information. Journals are usually published monthly or quarterly, and contain a selection of articles providing details of recent research. Often they will also contain reviews of relevant books. They are usually published more quickly than books, and so are often more up to date.

To access content of journals, most publishers require a subscription. There are, however, some journals which you can freely ac
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Introduction

This unit will help you to identify and use information in maths and statistics, whether for your work, study or personal purposes. Experiment with some of the key resources in this subject area, and learn about the skills which will enable you to plan searches for information, so you can find what you are looking for more easily. Discover the meaning of information quality, and learn how to evaluate the information you come across. You will also be introduced to the many different ways of or
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4.3.3 Pipe dreams?

The idea underlying complementary currencies – that there is a great well of social capital waiting to be drawn upon to make society more sustainable – is an idea that is becoming quietly influential. ‘Social capital’ is a term frequently used by those mainstream politicians and civil servants tasked with addressing the widening gap between rich and poor people within societies throughout the world. Indeed, investing in and enhancing social capital is now the starting point in
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3.3.4 Home-grown compassion, not public commitments

It has long been held that we conduct all citizenship, and the obligations it implies, in the public sphere (i.e. outside the private sphere of the home). However, it has been argued that there are other potential sources of obligation. Andrew Dobson argues that the principal duties of the ecological citizen are to act with care and compassion to strangers, both human and non-human – not just in the present, but also those distant in space and time (Dobson, 2000). These virtues of care and
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3.2 Governance – filling the hole where government used to be

Sustainable development emerged as a prominent environmental policy discourse at a time of deep introspection in policy communities. In the 1970s and early 1980s it was widely felt that something was badly wrong with the political process. Commentators from both left and right argued that nation states were losing the authority to govern and the capacity to act effectively. Expressions such as ‘ungovernability’, ‘legitimation crisis’ and ‘crisis of the welfare state’ were coined t
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2.1 Political responses to climate change and the environment

Not for the first time in this book, you are faced with a term that is important but difficult to define precisely. Although the fact that plenty of people from different standpoints are using the term ‘globalisation’ is some measure of its importance, it can be confusing to find that there are different ways of framing what it means for humans and the environment today and in the future. In this section, the range of political responses to climate change and environment–economy interac
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1.2 Globalisation is about networks

Globalisation is a term that refers to the flows around the world of species, money, goods, ideas, people, etc., and the networks that are integral to these flows. The word is used to attempt to capture a dizzying mix of recent economic, political and socio-cultural developments. The term can also be applied to ecological globalisation. The global transport of people, goods and services has massively increased. Technological and economic networks have developed to smooth trade and econ
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1.1 What is 'globalisation'?

Activity 1 What does ‘globalisation’ mean to you?

Note down on paper or in your learning journal  your first tho
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you will:

  • Have gained an understanding of the four dimensions of globalisation in relation to climate change;

  • Be able to distinguish between the three approaches to achieve sustainability;

  • Know the difference between ‘government’ and ‘governance’;

  • Identify what makes ecological citizenship distinctive;

  • Understand how the medium of the web can aid transitions to sustainability.


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Summary

In this part I have presented evidence showing that even apparently remote regions of our planet are intimately connected through physical processes. For example, once an organic POP is transported to the poles, then biological processes can take over and through bioaccumulation perhaps cause harm. But this physical connection has allowed the ice to preserve unique proxy records of the past climate of our planet. Directly measuring the gases trapped in the ice has enabled histories of past at
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4 The end of the last ice age: the Holocene

I have already noted that the great ice sheets took about 100,000 years to form and only about 10,000 years to decay. So what happened at the end of the last ice age? Figure 15 shows the EPICA ice core CO2 concentration and air temperature for the most recent 20 000 years, which is within the last ice
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3.1 Greenland's snowfall

Greenland snowfall differs depending on whether it falls in summer (when snow is comparatively warm and moist) or winter (when snow is cold and dry). These differences mean that as the snow is turned to ice, annual layers are formed that are in many ways similar to tree rings: thick annual layers mean high snowfall and thin annual layers low snowfall. The accumulation of snowfall on the summit of Greenland – and most importantly what is trapped within the crystals as it turns to ice – can
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2 The atmospheric and ocean flows

We now know that PBDEs end up in the Arctic through their physical transport by the winds, the ocean and the rivers of the world. All three mechanisms are important, but the most rapid carrier is the wind. The basic principle of global atmospheric circulation is simple: warm air rises and cold air sinks. The warming effect of the Sun is much greater at the equator than at higher latitudes and so the air is much warmer and it rises. At high latitudes the air cools and it sinks. This drives a h
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6.1 ‘I’, ‘we’ or ‘they’?

We must abandon the conceit that individual, isolated, private actions are the answer. They can and do help. But they will not take us far enough without collective action.

(Al Gore, 2007)

There are some things that we can do as individuals: making this an energy-efficient house and making smart transport choices. Then there a
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