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Acknowledgements

This unit was written by Dr Steve Padley

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7.4 Doubling

The cast list for the first performance of Top Girls at the Royal Court Theatre, London in 1982 indicates that six of the actors played two or more roles each; only one actor had a single role, that of Marlene. This doubling is also used in a BBC recording of the play, but it is not prescribed by the playwright, Caryl Churchill, who in fact has reservations about its desirability.

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2.4 Components, causes and effects

In this section, I shall say a little more about the shape that we might expect an answer to the ‘What is…?’ question to take. In particular, I would like consider some different claims about the way in which an emotional occurrence is related to other types of occurrence.

Here is a story.

Larry is told by his manager, Bella, that the project that he has been working on for months has been shelved: all his hard work has been wasted. Larry hears Bella telling him the news as
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit:

  • you will have learned about the central role played by the Roman emperor in the construction and development of culture, identity and power.


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References

Canetti, E. (1962 edn) Crowds and Power, Harmondsworth, Penguin.
Foner, P.S. (1977) History of the Labor Movement in the United States, vol. 3, New York, International Publications.
Koebner, R. and Schmidt, H.D. (1964) Imperialism: The Story and Significance of a Political Word, 1840–1950, Cambridge University Press.
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2.6.1 The phenomenological perspective

The term ‘phenomenology’ is a good example of polysemy, as it has different meanings according to the academic context in which it is found. There are scientific phenomenology and philosophical phenomenology, for example, and the sociologists Ken Thompson and Kath Woodward describe phenomenology as, ‘The development in sociology of a philosophical approach which focuses on people’s consciousness of their experiences and how they interpret the world; the meaning it has for them’ (Tho
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2.3 Is religion a museum piece?

We have used the video sequence below to highlight the emic/etic problem and we would like you to carry out a short exercise using it to consolidate your understanding of these terms.

The video introduces St Mungo Museum of Religious Life and Art in Glasgow, which has been described as the first public museum of religion in the world. Do note, however, that the Museum of Religions at the University of Marburg, Germany was founded in 1927 by Rudolf Otto. It contains a considerable number
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2.1 New perspectives

The purpose of studying religion is to make the strange familiar, and the familiar strange.

Exercise

We would encourage you now to jot do
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1.7 Language

Language is frequently a knotty problem in religion. As religions and religious ideas move from their place of origin to other cultures, either the new recipients have to learn the language of origin (Hebrew, Japanese, Sanskrit) or it has to be translated, in the course of which new interpretations, nuances or simply mistakes creep in. The majority of the new audience are thus at the mercy of the translators and interpreters, being unable to read or understand the original for themselves. Thi
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3.6 Conclusion

I asked the question at the beginning of this section on Sundanese gamelan music: how is it possible for a group of musicians to play highly complex music, in a cohesive manner, without the use of notation and without having to memorise impossibly large amounts of music? My answer came in a number of stages.

  1. Rather than reading, or memorising vast amounts of music, the musicians memorise the simple frameworks of pieces (the Javanese term for this, bal
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4.18.1 Data mining

Data mining refers to techniques for analysing databases or information systems to try to identify hidden but significant patterns that are not possible to detect by standard querying of the database.

Moxon defines data mining as follows:

Data mining is a set of techniques used in an automated approach to exhaustively explore and bring to the surface complex relationships in very large datasets … most likely im
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4.16.1 Ontologies + the Web = the Semantic Web

Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web, has defined a vision of the Web's evolution into the Semantic Web:

The Semantic Web is not a separate Web but an extension of the current one, in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. The first steps in weaving the Semantic Web into the structure of the existing Web are already under way.
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4.12.1 Communities of practice and technology

Communities of practice are technical and social networks which set the context in which new knowledge arises in daily work, and determine how it is shared and interpreted, what counts as important knowledge and how people become recognised as members of that community:

A good deal of new technology attends primarily to individuals and the explicit information that passes between them. To support the flow of knowledge,
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3.5.1 Planning a group memory system: a framework

Nothing can be stored in a computer-supported organisational memory unless it is encoded in some form. Who is going to invest the effort to encode information within an organisation?

Creating a dedicated team of information librarians and knowledge managers is certainly one route, perhaps necessary for long-term maintenance of a large repository, just as librarians are needed to manage traditional libraries. But such a team cannot be experts in all aspects of the organisation's activiti
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3.1 A knowledge management technology framework

In the introduction to a book on knowledge management technologies, Borghoff and Pareschi (1998) described a framework for organisational memory that has been developed within Xerox to promote understanding of the roles and interplay between different technologies (Figure 4).

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2.4.1 From Heidegger to knowledge technologies

Because each transformation from one ‘knowledge state’ to another (Figure 2) is an act of interpretation, there is no such thing as objective knowledge representation, or indeed objective classification or codification of any sort (in software or any other medium): there is always a viewpoint. This leads to the view that information and communication systems cannot be thought of as neutral; in their formal structures and operations they embody the goals and perspectives of their developer
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Introduction

Knowledge technologies embody formal models of how the world works. If well designed, these models can relieve people of mundane activities and free them up to concentrate on what they do best. At their best, knowledge technologies can detect patterns in information which are too complex for humans to detect, or which they do not have time to detect, and can deliver this information to the right people, at the right time, in the right form for interpretation. This unit looks at the cor
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2.5 ‘Events, dear boy, events’

A further influence on accounting is, to borrow Macmillan, events. (Macmillan was the Prime Minister of the UK (1957–1963) who famously observed that the greatest obstacle to political achievement was ‘Events, dear boy, events’.)Countries' systems are overtaken by events of one kind or another that bring accounting consequences. Not least of these is war. Napoleon's desire to conquer Europe had the side effect of exporting his Roman law paradigm and the commercial code within it, to hal
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1.8 Conclusion

This section has demonstrated that regulation evolves in response to a number of factors. Some of the more significant ones, such as economic development, ‘borrowed’ legislation, colonisation and imperialism and economic domination, have been discussed here. The consequence of this is that accounting regulation has evolved differently in various countries. The reasons for the diversity in accounting regulations will be considered in more detail in Author(s): The Open University

Introduction

This unit examines how national practices for financial reporting have evolved and why different rules are in place within different jurisdications. In times past, imperialism and war have both been responsible for expanding financial rules across Europe and the world . More recently the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 in the United States has had the same, if unintentional, effect.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Issues in international financial reportin
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