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6.6 A few final thoughts

This final section has concentrated on the heart, the lungs and the blood – the body's cardio-respiratory system. We saw briefly how the body takes oxygen in through the lungs, and discussed the importance of this for athletes in various sports. To understand the role of oxygen in the body and its importance to athletes, we had to draw on information that we had discussed in earlier sections about the way oxygen is carried in the blood and the way that the heart pumps blood to different par
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5.1 Introduction

Elite athletes are aware of the importance of heart performance and blood flow and many have specific training programmes to increase the strength and efficiency of the heart. This is not, however, just something that impacts on elite athletes. Even those of us engaged in sport at an amateur level or just for recreation will have experienced the effect of sport on the heart. After intense physical activity our heart pounds and possibly our head pounds too from the blood that is being pumped t
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2.3 The body's different systems

The body has a variety of different internal systems such as the skeleton, the collection of muscles, and the network of arteries and veins. To understand properly how the body works, we need to understand these separate systems as well as the links between them.

Activity 1: What you need to do


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2.2 The body as a machine

This is a useful way of thinking if we want to understand some basic aspects of how the body works in its relation to sport. We can think of the body as a device that operates on simple mechanical principles, that needs to be fuelled and that uses up this fuel as it is driven harder.

Figure 1
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1 What to expect

In this unit you will look at how sport can be understood from a scientific perspective. This is a large topic with many possible approaches. We will try to focus on specific details while maintaining a broad overview of the subject using examples from many different sports such as running, athletics, cycling and swimming to illustrate the different ways in which sport and science interact.

You will see that even a brief introduction to the science of the human body is enough to answer
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Introduction

With the announcement of the summer Olympics coming to London in 2012, fierce competition between football clubs in the domestic league, and developments in coaching and training throughout all areas of physical fitness, there has never been a better time to learn more about sport. Many of us take for granted what we know about sport, whether we participate or spectate. But have you ever thought about delving deeper, to find out more about the sport you follow in particular and how it fits in
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4 Power: the medical gaze and the management of risk

Power is an essential feature of the debate about the medicalisation of death, as western societies value knowledge and expertise and allocate authority accordingly. As highly trained professionals, medical and clinical practitioners fall into some of the most highly esteemed positions of authority in society. The philosopher, Foucault highlights the relationship between power and knowledge. He connects them to the extent that:

<
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2.2 Neuronal changes during grief

Recently medical researchers have been joined by neuroscientists determined to pin down precisely those parts of the brain that are activated by the experience of grief. Although this approach might be considered to be reductionist, it demonstrates the way in which some scientists are attempting to explain complex behaviour in neuroscientific terms.

Eight volunteers who had experienced the death of someone close in the previous year agreed to be studied as part of a research project con
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Introduction

The caring people do for family members or close friends is often difficult to define, as you're probably aware. Sometimes people are reluctant to be described as being a ‘carer’ because it signals a change in a relationship, or a change in someone's lifestyle.

How people talk about care, and the meanings that they give to what they do, can influence many aspects of caring relationships. It may determine whether help is provided in the first place, and also what kind of help is giv
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2.2 Opportunities for creativity and personal development

Hubbard et al. (2003) identify that within institutional care settings, social relationships among older people are important for supporting residents. They note that older people with the most severe disabilities, and those for whom communication is most difficult as a result of sensory or cognitive impairments, are particularly likely to experience social and emotional isolation in care settings. Within care homes, strategies for establishing and sustaining relationships among residents and
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1 Transitions

The term ‘transition’ implies a change, and change has implications for the identity of the person who experiences it. It is likely to require a period of adjustment to assimilate and respond to it. Hopson and Adams (1976) suggest that a major transition, however triggered, can result in a cycle of changes to an individual's self-esteem. For example, moving into residential care is a major transition in anyone's life, yet older people are often assessed for, or seek, residential or nursin
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • recognise some key factors which determine the way people experience and manage transitions;

  • identify elements of good practice for supporting people through transitions;

  • discuss how care environments can promote service users’ identity, strengths and autonomy;


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Introduction

This unit considers working with people in group care and residential settings. Social workers play a critical role in supporting service users in moves to and from residential care, and they should be capable of assessing needs and the quality of care provision. The activities in the unit focus on the lives of three people living in a nursing and residential home for elderly and disabled people. Although many of the practice examples relate to work with older people, the values and principle
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3.8 Perspectives on practice: building relationships

1 hour 0 minutes

Listen to the following audio clips, ‘Panel discussion on critical practice’, Part 2: Professional power

In these clips, the panel critically discusses the importance of se
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2.1 Introduction

This session has two activities. Both introduce you to some theoretical perspectives on an approach to practice known as ‘constructive’ social work. You will read and think about some provocative theoretical and philosophical ideas that have an important application to the key practice activities of ‘talk’ and, through talk, the development of working relationships.


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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • give examples of how LETS work as a community development.


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5 Summary

From the point of view of the contributors in the audio clips, the work individuals have done to promote change is the most obvious source of pressure. Working together, they see that parents have had a major impact over the past 50 years.

However, you can also discern the impact of ideas here, the idea that parents were ‘no longer primarily working-class objects of suspicion, but respectable, often middle-class people “burdened with care”, deserving of more public sympathy and su
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5 General points on assessment

Activity 5

Look at the notes you have made on the four clips, and decide what general points about assessment have been made.

Discussion

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1 Brian and Sylvia's experiences

Brian and Sylvia, a married couple in their early sixties, were both bikers until Brian was diagnosed as having Parkinson's Disease. Sylvia became his designated carer, but her own health was deteriorating. Brian had an initial assessment by the social services department, followed by annual review assessments for home care. There were also assessments related to Brian's attendance at a day centre. Sylvia had assessments as a carer, but was looking at having an assessment as a service user.
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7 Audio clip 4: Paul

Paul was 30 years old when he was interviewed. He had been in and out of homelessness for most of his adult life, but had become a volunteer with the Cyrenians. He was living in a shared house with some other volunteers.

Paul spent much of his childhood in a caravan in Happy Valley, near the sea, with his parents, brothers and sisters. At 21, when he was living with his girlfriend and her parents, his daughter was born. When she was two months old, they were kicked out, and Paul went to
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