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2.1 Introduction

In all the analysis of stellar properties discussed so far we have made an implicit assumption - that light emitted by a star is not changed between its emission and its arrival outside the Earth's atmosphere, except by the inverse square law (i.e. it is reduced by a factor of d2, where d is the distance to the star) and by the Doppler effect. However, this may not be the case.

Author(s): The Open University

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3 Measuring the Sun

Section 2 referred to observations that can only be made using sophisticated telescopes, but this section turns to an observation you can do yourself. There are two reasons for this: one is to give you experience in scientific measuring and the other is to introduce some terminology that astronomers use frequently.


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3.1 Your experience of innovation

Before I look in more detail at what's involved in the processes of invention and innovation, I want you to consider your own experience of innovation as an end user.

Now attempt Exercise 1. Consider the impact of one innovation on you and your family and, using the internet, look briefly at the development history behind that innovation. You'll need to make notes summarising what you discover, so make sure you have some means of recording the information and your comments.


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21W.730-2 The Creative Spark (MIT)
"Creative activity (isn't) the icing on the cake. Human creativity is the cake." (Jerry Hirschberg) Creativity - "the mastery of information and skills in the service of dreams" (Hirschberg) - is much prized in the arts, science, business and the classroom. What does the creative process look like? Under what conditions does it flourish - what ignites the creative spark? Attempting to answer these questions, this class explores ways creativity has been understood in Western culture: what we
Author(s): Boiko, Karen

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Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative C

Screaming Forest, Part 1 of 3
Part 1 of an artfully-crafted wordless art video visually describing the destruction of a natural forest.  Set to dramatic music.  A blood-red, bowed, beared, downcast human head - with a crown of thorns? - is featured behind the blowing tree limbs and branches.  Part 1 ends with a human eye staring in alarm (1:27). 
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7.2 Learning from feedback

This is actually quite a difficult thing for any student to do. It is most effective when your assignment is returned, but by then you may have moved on to the next part of the course. Even so, you do need to make time to re-visit your assignment when it is returned and take note of your tutor's comments. It is the one time when your tutor is able to give feedback and advice to you as an individual student so it is well worth taking time to really absorb their comments. Try to separate
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9.7 References for Reading 2

Bellaby, P. (2003) ‘Communication and miscommunication of risk: understanding UK parents' attitudes to combined MMR vaccination’, British Medical Journal, 327, 27 September 2003, pp. 725–28. Reproduced by permission from the BMJ Publishing Group; Mary Evans Picture Library Ltd; P A Photos.

  1. Wakefield AJ, Murch, SH, Anthony, A, Linnell, J, Casson, DM, Malik, M, et al. ‘Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and p
    Author(s): The Open University

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U.S. Morning Call: Best Buy to founder: deal's off
Aug 20 - No deal for Best Buy founder Richard Schulze after he rejected the electronics retailer's board's offer to conduct due diligence.
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The Rescue Foundation
In Mumbai, thousands of young girls are kidnapped or sold against their will into the sex trade. This film documents human sex trafficking in India and the efforts of the Rescue Foundation, a refuge for girls who were once imprisoned. (11:25)
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Making of the April Fools Kittehs Photoshoot
The kind folks at Rochester Animal Services generously let us borrow some cats and kittens (not to mention their facilities) for our April Fools silliness. On a serious note, to visit and adopt these kitties and their sheltermates, visit http://www.cityofrochester.gov/article.aspx?id=8589936604. Music: "Tail Spin," Paul Whiteman, 1934 http://archive.org/details/PaulWhiteman1920-1935CompleteCollectionPartTwo
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3.6.2 The JAK–STAT pathway

Another important protein kinase pathway is the JAK–STAT pathway. Cytokines (Section 2.2), are frequently used for signalling between cells of the immune system. Cytokine-induced signal transduction cascades are often direct pathways to the nucleus for switching on sets of genes. Janus kinases (JAKs, named after the two-faced Roman god) are a particular
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1.8.1 The experience of Hillsborough

We have explored the challenges of entering into situations which are ambiguous and open to competing interpretations. But what happens in a situation where nobody knows what is going on, where established meanings have collapsed altogether? Tom Heller gives a graphic account of such a situation in his description of his experience of the Hillsborough football stadium disaster.

Click on 'view document' below to read Tom Heller's account of his experiences at Hillsborough.

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7.2 Information sources

7.2.1 How do I find the information required to carry out COSHH risk assessments?

The best source of information is the material safety data sheet (MSDS). By law (CHIP3) this should accompany any chemical that is purchased. However, if this is not available, or the chemical is old, then copies can be obtained from the manufacturer's website or information can sometimes be found in the
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1.2 Sports media

The media play a key role in the creation of iconic moments, sports celebrities and major sporting events, and in our everyday experience of sport. Sport is global not only because it is played across the world, but, more importantly, because the media transmit information across the globe so fast and so effectively to create a culture of sport and to place sport so prominently within popular culture. The media, like sport, are part of a massive global network that developed through the twent
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11 The official inquiries

In December 1997, the UK government announced the Public Inquiry into BSE that was to be chaired by Lord Justice Phillips. Public hearings commenced in March 1998 and eventually concluded in December 1999. The Report of the BSE Inquiry was delivered to the Secretaries of State for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and for Health and published in October 2000. Having published an interim response in February 2001, the government's final response to the report was published in September 2001. As
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3.4 Describing characteristics and locations

In the remainder of this section you study some expressions commonly used in description and then practise them in the context of a site in France.


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Building Microsoft Surface Pro 3 | Microsoft Ignite 2015

Have you wondered what it takes to pack the power of an Intel core chip in a thin tablet? Come hear it from the engineers who built the individual components of the Surface Pro 3 device. Hear the stories behind the tablet that can replace your laptop.


Author(s): Vineet Thuvara

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Rights not set

5.2 Becker's ‘employer taste’ model

The most prominent neoclassical explanation of discrimination is based on the work of Gary Becker and develops the idea that some workers, employers or customers do not want to work with or come into contact with members of other racial groups or with women (Becker, 1971). No explanation is given as to why this prejudice exists, rather it is simply assumed that there is a ‘taste’ or preference against people from disadvantaged groups and that this taste can be treated in exactly the same
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3.2 Uranium occurrence and ore deposits

In igneous rocks, uranium is more abundant in granites (~3.5 ppm) than in basalts (~1 ppm). The large size of the uranium atom prevents it from easily entering the structures of common rock-forming minerals, so it is an incompatible element that tends to remain in magmas until a late stage of crystallisation, when it enters minor minerals, or even the uranium oxide, uraninite (UO2). In suitable circumstances, following fractional crystallisation of uranium-rich granitic magm
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5 Rhyme

If a poem rhymes, then considering how the rhyme works is always important.

Rhyme schemes can be simple or highly intricate and complex; it will always be worth considering why a particular rhyme pattern was chosen and trying to assess its effects.

Activity 4

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