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4.2.1 ATM physical layer

The ATM physical layer is divided into two sub-layers: the transmission convergence sub-layer and the physical medium sub-layer.

Functions of the transmission convergence sub-layer include generating and receiving cells, and generating and verifying the cyclic redundancy check in the header error control field. For correct interpretation of ATM cells it is important to identify the beginning of a cell. In theory, if ATM cells are transmitted as a continuous stream of bits,
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References

Bartlett, R. (1994) The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change, 950–1350, London, Penguin.

Bideleux, R. (1999) ‘Europeanization’ versus ‘democratization’ in east-central Europe’, paper delivered to Budapest conference on Democratic Transition and Consolidation.

Bugge, P. (1995) ‘Europe 1914–1945: the nation supreme’ in van der Dussen, J. and Wilson, K. (eds) The History of the Idea of Europe, London, Routledge/The Open Universi
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3.1 Introduction

How evolution proceeds is obviously of central importance when studying mammals. Of fundamental importance to the way evolution works is the notion of natural selection, and in S182_3 Studying mammals: chisellers I'll be talking about what most researchers regard as this 'single most important idea in biology'. But before that, I want to describe some of the adaptations evident in insect eaters.

From your reading of LoM you'll appreciate that natural selection promotes the evolut
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Introduction

This unit will help you understand the expressions social construction and social constructionism. These terms are used in the study of the Social Sciences and, in particular, in relation to Social Policy. The materials are primarily an audio file, originally 28 minutes in length and recorded in 2001.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Social policy: welfare, power and diversity (D218) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to
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Feeling stressed?
This Oxford at Said seminar was dedicated to the phenomenon of stress. Sloan Mahone gives a historical perspective on the topic, Ian Brown presents latest findings on occupational stress and John Morris covers stress from a physiological perspective. Three Oxford University researchers from the areas of history of medicine, occupational health and physiology discuss how their disciplines define stress, how they approach it and what can be learned from their findings. Sloan Mahone, University Lec
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4.2 Coal distribution in the UK and Europe

The UK and Europe were fortunate in having extensive coalfields that powered the Industrial Revolution. Figure 33 shows the distribution of the major Carboniferous mires which became coal-bearing rocks across Europe, either outcropping at the surface or buried beneath younger rocks. The first thing that is evident from this map is th
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this booklet.

Text

Wilson, J.
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1.3.6 Stage 4: Extracting the information

You probably feel that you now have all the information the piece of writing contains or that you need, but now we need to categorise the information it contains and to look for connections with our own social scientific concerns. This is the difficult bit, and we don't expect you to be expert at it yet.


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Introduction

Aerobic fitness is important for sports performance and health, but what sort of exercise should you be doing to develop your aerobic fitness? This unit will help you to answer this question by introducing you to principles of aerobic exercise prescription.

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course Introduction to sport, fitness an
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4.2.1 Hub and spoke architectures

There are two main types of bus architectures. These are hub and spoke architectures and multicast bus architectures. Figure 4 shows a typical hub and spoke architecture.

Figure 4
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Economic Update: What Inequality Does
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3.4 Summary of Section 3