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3.2 Counting the crime problem

What kind of evidence would support the claims of the common-sense narrative? Where would it come from and where would you find it? Most social scientists would start with the people who actually spend their time counting these things – governments. Government agencies of all kinds spend a great deal of time and money producing official statistics, recording crime rates, conviction rates, the size of prison populations, and so on.

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1.2 Sports media

The media play a key role in the creation of iconic moments, sports celebrities and major sporting events, and in our everyday experience of sport. Sport is global not only because it is played across the world, but, more importantly, because the media transmit information across the globe so fast and so effectively to create a culture of sport and to place sport so prominently within popular culture. The media, like sport, are part of a massive global network that developed through the twent
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Acknowledgements

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

The following material is contained in: Work, Personal Lives and Social Policy (ed. Gerry Mooney) 2004, published in association wit
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7.3 The importance of the individual and gender: post-structuralism and feminism

Reversing the argument, we can begin from post-structuralist theories of governmentality. We might put the case that it is those who ‘act on the actions of others’ at ground level who shape personal lives and govern the social world. It is only through interactions between unique individual client-subjects and PAs' wide discretion that this can occur under workfare arrangements. To neo-Marxists and Marxist feminists, though, PAs are at best semi-autonomous agents of the state, whose power
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5 Personal Advisers, personal lives

What is clear from a wide range of New Deal evaluations (Dawson et al., 2000; O'Connor et al., 2001; Lewis et al., 2000) is that PAs provide a critical interface between the programme and its clients. The prominence of ‘personal’ in their title carries several meanings. Clients are allocated to PAs on a one-to-one basis, with the implication of a relationship, and of continuity. It also implies personal advice, which crosses the boundary of the informational into the distinctive needs of
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4.1 Looking at the evidence

Some analysis of the data shown in Figures 4 (a) and 4 (b) is needed to set it in a wider context. We need to know how many openings we
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1 Welfare, work and social policy: an overview

On 29 February 2000, a 6-year-old boy in his first year at Buell School, Beecher, in the town of Flint, Michigan, in the USA, took a .32 calibre handgun to school and shot 6-year-old Michaela Roland dead with a single bullet. The boy had been staying with his uncle because his mother, Tamarla Owens, had been evicted from her home for lapsing on her rent payments, despite working up to 70 hours a week in two jobs to maintain her two children. Tamarla Owens was not there that morning to see her
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4.3.1 Knowledge and learning in the industry life cycle

In Section 3 we described technology as ‘given’ to firms. Now let us reflect on that idea. We can think of technology as consisting of bodies of knowledge necessary to produce artefacts. An appreciation of the importance of knowledge to economic activity is not new, for it was recognised by the eminent economist Alfred
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Introduction

This unit looks at the role of innovation in the development of industries and considers how production costs change as sales increase and as new technology is introduced into the production process. It looks at the relation between consumer demand for a good and that good's price, and at how the relation between output and production costs in different markets can dramatically affect industry structure. In describing these issues, the unit introduces the range of activities that constitutes
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Questions for review and discussion

Question 9

Suppose a firm uses 200 hours of labour per day and produces 4000 mobile phones. It then reduces its labour inputs to 100 hours per day and finds it can produce 3000 phones. Which one of the following is a correct statement
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4.5 Technological change

In both industries the fall in prices was driven by radical changes in the production of the products. How might we investigate the technological changes and the changes in quality that occurred in both industries simultaneously with the drastic fall in prices? There are various methods used by economists to measure technological change. Some methods focus on the ‘inputs’ into the innovation process, such as the spending on research and development by firms. But this is not ideal as it do
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4.2 The industry life cycle

The comparison between the automobile industry and the PC industry makes sense only if we concentrate on similar periods in their evolution. We will concentrate here on the ‘early’ development of both industries, in what will be called the ‘introductory’ and ‘early growth’ phases in their life cycles. This is the period running from 1900 to 1930 in the automobile industry and from 1975 to 2000 in the PC industry. The automobile industry refers here to all firms producing cars and
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Introduction

The material presented here focuses on a key question for criminologists, criminal justice policy-makers and politicians: ‘Does prison work?’ The material is an audio file, originally 28 minutes in length, and examines the issues around this apparently simple criminological question. It was recorded in 1995.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Crime, order and social control (D315) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to s
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Introduction

This unit will help you understand the expressions social construction and social constructionism. These terms are used in the study of the Social Sciences and, in particular, in relation to Social Policy. The materials are primarily an audio file, originally 28 minutes in length and recorded in 2001.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Social policy: welfare, power and diversity (D218) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to
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1.5.6 Copyright – what you need to know

An original piece of work, whether it is text, music, pictures, sound recordings, web pages, etc., is protected by copyright law and may often have an accompanying symbol (©) and/or legal statement. In the UK it is the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 which regulates this.

In most circumstances, works protected by copyright can be used in whole or in part only with the permission of the owner. In some cases this permission results in a fee.

However, the UK legislation incl
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1.5.2 Ways of organising yourself

How do you organise yourself?

Activity 12

Make a note of how you organise your:

  • emails

  • internet bookmarks or favorites

  • computer files

  • you
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1.4.6 P is for Provenance

The provenance of a piece of information (i.e. who produced it? where did it come from?) may provide another useful clue to its reliability. It represents the 'credentials' of a piece of information that support its status and perceived value. It is therefore very important to be able to identify the author, sponsoring body or source of your information.

Why is this important?

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1.4.2 P is for Presentation

By presentation, we mean, the way in which the information is communicated. You might want to ask yourself:

  • Is the language clear and easy to understand?

  • Is the information clearly laid out so that it is easy to read?

  • Are the fonts large enough and clear?

  • Are the colours effective? (e.g. white or yellow on black can be difficult to read)

  • If there are graphics or photos, do they help
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1.3.9 Internet resources

There are many websites where you will find useful information on society. With all information on the internet you need to make a judgement on the reliability of the information.

SocioWebAn independent guide to Sociological resources available on the Web.

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1.3.5 Images

Images can also be found online. Some useful image databases are:

British Library Images Online Images from two millennia of world history. The collection includes images of people, natural history, religion, conflict, travel and exploration, and social history. There are free samp
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