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4.2.1 Hub and spoke architectures

There are two main types of bus architectures. These are hub and spoke architectures and multicast bus architectures. Figure 4 shows a typical hub and spoke architecture.

Figure 4
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2.1 Protocols

Message passing is the simplest form of development paradigm. For example, the way that a client running a browser communicates with a web server is via message passing.

Message passing is based on the idea of a protocol: a language which embodies the functions required by one entity in a distributed system (usually a client) which another entity provides (usually a server). As an example of a protocol consider Table 1. It shows the protocol associated with a naming servi
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3.5.1 Anonymous remailers

An anonymous remailer is a website which enables you to send an email anonymously to some recipient. The main reason for this is to do with something known as spam. This term describes unsolicited email which tries to sell the recipient something.

Spam

Throughout the internet you can
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1.6.2 Populating the database

After a database has been created, there are two ways of populating the tables – either from existing data, or through the use of the user applications developed for the database.

For some tables, there may be existing data from another database or data files. For example, in establishing a database for a hospital you would expect that there are already some records of all the staff that have to be included in the database. Data might also be bought in from an outside agency (address
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1.2 Aims of the unit

This unit will:

  • use case studies (real-life examples of interesting aspects of the unit which illustrate particular points) that relate the use of computers to finding, storing, processing and disseminating data and information;

  • describe various instances of computer use to see how computers can work with data to produce information;

  • introduce you to what a browswer is, and how to use one;

  • demonstrate
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6 Basic trigonometry

We are going to look at some of the basics of trigonometry relating to right angle triangles. So the first question is, What is a right angle triangle?

It is a triangle in which one of the angles is 90°, which is commonly referred to as a right angle. The sum of the angles in any triangle is 180°. So if the other two angles are α and β as in Author(s): The Open University

4.1 Arriving and getting ready

When you arrive at the exam centre, you may prefer to stay quietly on your own, rather than chat to other students. Do what suits you best and helps you to feel calm and positive. Once you are in your seat, try not to look around. Your senses can be heightened by tension and can fasten on irrelevant details, such as what other students are doing or wearing. Try visualising a relaxing scene, or relax using breathing exercises. Visualisation and relaxation exercises are described in Author(s): The Open University

3.1 What is revision?

Revision is not, as the word suggests, simply 'looking again' at the material covered in a course - it is a more active task. It involves organising material and finding ways of remembering it, that suit your own particular learning style. Although the time you set aside for revision is important, the approach you adopt and the techniques you use to revise are more vital. Sometimes the thought of having to revise can seem daunting, but be reassured, revision skills and techniques can be learn
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2.1 Unfamiliar words

Salim, Erin, Lewis and Kate all mentioned various difficulties encountered as they read the Layard article. Perhaps your experience was similar. If so, how did you respond? Was your progress held up, or did you manage to keep going? With lots of reading to do, it is important to have ways of finding your way round the obstacles you encounter.

Kate was put off by the word ‘paradox’ and Erin did not know what ‘marginal tax’ meant. I, too, noted down ‘real income’, ‘norm’,
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5.7 Conclusion

We hope that you have enjoyed Learning to change. The unit has asked you to explore your own learning and how it can be used for personal development and change. We hope that you have found that you have a combination of knowledge, skills and qualities that you can take forward in ways that will help you feel fulfilled in whatever you decide to do and will make your life more interesting and enjoyable.

We also hope that you have begun to feel that in addition to being able to man
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5.4 What have I learned about my qualities?

Your qualities include some aspects that you might find difficult to talk about. We hope that your work on this unit has given you a clearer idea about these. They could include qualities like integrity and honesty, and they may link to some of your values – values that, perhaps, inform your vision and your action plan. How you use your improved awareness of your qualities is something that you may want to think about. You may be content to know that your qualities and values underpin your
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4.5.1 Thinking about resources

Modern-day life often means we have so many commitments that it is hard to find the time to do all the things that we would like to do. However, instead of listing ‘not having the time’ as one of your obstacles, an alternative decision might be to ‘make time’ by temporarily dropping another activity that you currently take part in, so that you can make room for the new one. It is a question of working out where your priorities lie; how motivated you are to achieve one goal rather than
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3.2.3 How it might be possible to get another perspective

When setting out on a process of personal change it is really important that you take good care of yourself. Part of this might be a decision that it would be unwise or unhelpful to approach anyone that you know for feedback. If you think that this will be your decision then you will be pleased to know that there are alternative ways to include the perspectives that other people can provide. There is a well-established tradition of using different approaches in order to bring in what other pe
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2.6.1 Referencing

Referencing is a good way to illustrate this similarity. You will have noticed that when the unit refers to someone, the name and some other details (often a year and a page number) are given. An example in this section would be: Allen (2001, p. 24). Here, the year (2001) and a page number are provided because reference was being made to a particular aspect of this book. If the discussion had been about the book in general it would have been fine just to give the year. If you look at the list
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1.5.2 Planning your study time

One of the most difficult aspects of being a student is fitting in your studying with everything else in your life. This is why this unit focuses on organisational skills including time management. It is important both to find enough time to study and then to try to make the most effective use of your time. Finding enough time can be quite a challenge! It often means giving up some activities you currently enjoy or perhaps negotiating with your family and friends to pass on some of the daily
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Learning outcomes

The aims of section 1 are to:

  • provide you with a clear idea of what the unit is about and how it is structured

  • help you understand the importance of the word ‘skills’

  • start you thinking about your own learning.

By the time you have reached the end of section 2 you should be able to:

  • understand that valuable and important learning goes on all the time

  • appreciate that learning can involve thinking, doin
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1.2.4 What is computing with confidence?

A confident computer user is one who knows more than just the required key presses to operate the software they are using. The two most important qualities of a confident computer user are:

  • knowing how to cope when things go wrong;

  • knowing how to learn new computing skills independently.


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Learning outcomes

By the end of the unit you should be able to:

  • tackle computer-based tasks more confidently;

  • have an awareness of your preferred learning styles.


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7.3 Drafting essays

As you may remember from Activity 4, the main elements of an essay are:

  • the introduction

  • the main body

  • the conclusion.


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5.1 Estimating the time for the task

First you need to know how much time you have available for your assignment. The pacing of your studies comes outside the scope of this unit, but it can be very de-motivating when you no longer feel in control of your studies because – for whatever reason – you have fallen behind. So it is extremely important to meet the deadlines set by the course team in your course calendar whenever possible.

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