Pages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 9007 result(s) returned

References

National Audit Office (2001) Tackling obesity in England [online] Available from: www.nao.org.uk/publications/nao_reports/00-01/0001220.pdf (Accessed 20 April 2009).
Watkins, P. J.(2003) Diabetes and its Management, Oxford, Blackwell Publishing.
World Health Organization (1999) Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

3.7 Insulin

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas. It has many actions, but is particularly important in keeping the blood glucose level normal.

Question: How does
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

3.5 Muscle

There are different sorts of muscle in the body and they have different functions. Skeletal muscles are the muscles that, for example, are used for movement in your arms and legs.

Skeletal muscles store glucose as glycogen (Figure 4) and are able to use glucose as a fuel. Insulin stimulates muscles to take up glucose, and w
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

3.3 Gut

The gut, or digestive tract, is where the food we eat is broken down (digested) and absorbed into the blood. The key food groups are fats, carbohydrates and proteins; vitamins and minerals are also required for a healthy diet and of course we need water too.

Examples of foods that are mainly protein are meat, fish, pulses and soya products. Fats, including butter and oil, are found in a range of foods, such as cheese and cream. Carbohydrates are found in bread, potatoes, rice and pasta,
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

Introduction

This unit introduces parts of the body and processes involved in the development of diabetes.

This unit is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Diabetes care (SK120) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to explore other courses we offer in this subject area.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

13 Unit summary

  1. BSE is a TSE disease of cattle that was formally recognised in 1986. It developed to epidemic proportions in the UK, reaching a peak in 1992. Although BSE is now fading away in the UK, cases have eventually turned up in many other countries.

  2. Mainly through epidemiological studies, veterinary scientists quickly established (at least to their satisfaction) that BSE was caused by the inclusion in cattle feed of ruminant-derived MBM contaminated w
    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

9 Managing the BSE/vCJD episode from May 1990 to March 1996

The discovery of FSE in the domestic cat and TSEs in antelopes of five different species (Section 4) – plus laboratory transmission of BSE to a pig – confirmed the transferability of BSE between species. The ban on SBO was therefore extended from September 1990 to cover all animal feed (including pet food). At
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

7 Managing the BSE/vCJD episode: an overview

Having concentrated so far on the ‘science’ behind BSE and vCJD, we now turn our attention to how the episode was managed by scientists, politicians and other relevant decision makers. Not surprisingly, we shall find that the themes of communication, risk and ethical issues are inextricably linked to that of decision making (at local, national and international levels).

Over the years, the UK Government implemented a great many Orders and Regulations, amending several of these more
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

5.2 Metabolism

Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

Text

Figures
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

1.4.5 Velocity–time and speed–time graphs

Just as we may plot the position–time graph or the displacement–time graph of a particular motion, so we may plot a velocity–time graph for that motion. By convention, velocity is plotted on the vertical axis (since velocity is the dependent variable) and time (the independent variable) is plotted on the horizontal axis. In the special case of uniform motion, the velocity–time graph takes a particularly simple form – it is just a horizontal line, i.e. the gradient is zero. Ex
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

7 Conclusion

Activity 15

Perhaps you are asking yourself why there are so many different imaging modalities. Is there not one that will do everything that is required? The answer, at the moment, is ‘No’. With most of the imaging techniques, we cons
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

2.2.3 Couch

The couch or patient trolley must be radio-translucent (i.e. it allows through most of the X-rays). Nonetheless there is some interaction between the couch and the X-rays and this can be a cause of scattered radiation.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

2.2 Ice and salt

As noted in Section 1.5, Europa's near-infrared reflectance spectrum was used as long ago as the 1950s to demonstrate that its surface is mostly water-ice. More recently, spectroscopic observations by the Hubble Space Telescope and Galileo have revealed some regions where the ice appears to be salty (see below) and ha
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

6 Reflections

DA opens the TV programme by stating that ‘monkeys and apes have the richest social life of all mammals’. I have explored the importance of colour vision in the interactions between individuals and discussed how gestural and vocal communication add considerably to this richness. But ultimately, it is their ability to be innovative, to discover new ways of obtaining foods, to learn from one another (so-called cultural learning), to form friendships, alliances and coalitions between individ
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

1 The anthropoids

As you work through this unit you will come across boxes, like this one, which give you advice about the study skills that you will be developing as you progress through the unit. To avoid breaking up the flow of the text, they will usually appear at the start or end of the sections.

In this unit you'
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

5 Public learning agendas

So far, this unit has argued that public engagement with science can be through both institutionalised events and independent contributions – hopefully, something for everyone. But to what extent will this be a consistent move towards dialogue and understanding, as requested by the UK and EU policies mentioned in Section 2?

Reading 2 suggests a move towards genuine interaction is possible if there is enough political motivation to enhance community learning of science and technology
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

1.2 Artificial selection

Selection acts on phenotypic characters whatever their origin, and can retain or eliminate the characters' genetic basis. Artificial selection is any selective breeding intentionally practiced by humans leading to the evolution of domesticated organisms. Artificial selection may oppose or amplify or be neutral in relation to natural selection. Most livestock, including dogs, cats, goats, pigs, cattle, sheep, guinea pigs, horses, geese and poultry and scores of crop plants were d
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

Introduction

Most contemporary evolutionary biologists study evolution experimentally using laboratory organisms such as Drosophila or natural systems in the wild. However, 18th and 19th century evolutionary biologists, including Darwin, emphasised the similarities between natural evolution and artificial ‘ improvement’ of livestock under domestication. They believed that studying domesticated animals and plants could illuminate the mechanisms of natural evolution. Indeed, Chapter 1 of On th
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

Pages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451