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8 Websites for further information:

Primers on drug addiction:

For general in
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4.6 Consequences of neural ageing

While we are beginning to understand the underlying molecular and cellular changes that take place in the ageing brain, the consequences of these changes are all too familiar. As people age, their mental competence may change and their ability to cope with the demands of everyday life may alter. A decline in
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4.4 Mechanisms that affect ageing of cells

So what are the causes of cellular ageing? A variety of causal mechanisms has been proposed, as you shall see. Many of
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2.3 Central questions in addiction

Arising out of these issues, it is possible to define questions central to a study of addiction. Take time to consider and answer these questions:

Acknowledgements

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1.2 Response to winter: understanding at different levels

Winter in a temperate region poses a number of environmental problems for organisms. Most obviously, average temperatures are lower than at other times of year and there are frequent frosts. Frost is highly significant for living organisms because water forms such a large proportion of their body tissues; for the great majority of organisms, freezing of their tissues leads to death. Secondly, because, as shown in Table 1.1, many adult organisms die, go into hiding or migrate in winter, many o
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1.6 The quark-lepton era (contd)

The next stage of the story is to look at how and when the original mixture of all types of quark and lepton that were present when the Universe was 10−11 s old, gave rise to the Universe today, which seems to be dominated by protons, neutrons and electrons.

Question 8

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3.2 Using a framework to think about communication between yourself and other professionals

Activity 5

0 hours 40 minutes

The objective of this activity is:

  • to use a variety of ‘tools’ to help you examine your prac
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3.5 Inheritance

The adaptive explanation for bright coloration in male guppies given above can only be correct, and can only have evolved by natural selection, if male coloration has a heritable basis. Direct evidence that it is a heritable character is of two kinds. First, a wide variety of decorative guppies have been bred for sale on the aquarium market. Such forms could not have been produced if male coloration were not heritable. Second, if samples of guppies are taken from different Trinidadian streams
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1.4.6 P is for Provenance

The provenance of a piece of information (i.e. who produced it? where did it come from?) may provide another useful clue to its reliability. It represents the 'credentials' of a piece of information that support its status and perceived value. It is therefore very important to be able to identify the author, sponsoring body or source of your information.

Why is this important?

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13 Post-compulsory science education

In a speech to the Institute of Economic Affairs in 2001, the then UK Secretary of State for Education said:

Young people choosing vocational study will be able to see a ladder of progression that gives structure, purpose and expectation to their lives, in the same way that a future pathway is clear to those who leave school to gain academic A-levels and enter university. Over-16s in full-time education will be abl
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7.2 Assessing the quality of data

Ryder points out that Cumbrian sheep farmers were required to have their sheep periodically checked by on-the-spot measurement for radioactive contamination. Here's one farmer's response to the experience of such monitoring:

We monitored quite a lot and about 13 or 14 of them failed. And he [the monitor] said, ‘now we'll do them again’ – and we got the failures down to three! It makes you wonder a bit … it
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3.1 Introduction

In reality, most mainstream science curricula relegate explicit teaching about the nature of science to the margins – a situation almost universally condemned by science educators. Donnelly (2001) describes recent history in one particular example of curriculum design, where Nature of Science (NoS) issues still remain a peripheral element within the National Curriculum for England and Wales. Donnelly describes the policy confusions that reflect tensions about some fundamental issues about s
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9.1 Introduction

Two of the most basic and important skills of a successful student are being able to read effectively and make clear, concise notes

The process of note-taking helps you engage with study materials in an active way. Turning a text into your own words helps to sharpen up your understanding and focus your thinking. The key to successful note-taking is to create notes that suit your purpose rather than writing reams that are boring to write and even more boring to read later! Here are some
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5.2 Summary of Part D

In Part D you have:

  • examined how to read an Act of Parliament;

  • studied the physical layout of Acts of Parliament and identified those features common to all Acts of Parliament;

  • read sections of the Law Reform (Year and a Day Rule) Act 1996 and the Crime and Disorder Act 1998;

  • examined the importance of Schedules and the short statement at the beginning of the Act;

  • studied the language
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5.1 Reading an Act of Parliament

In Parts A and B of this unit we have examined what influences determine which Acts of Parliament are made and the process by which they are made. In Part D I would like to show you some examples of what an Act of Parliament looks like, how Acts of Parliament are structured and how you should read an Act of Parliament.

Copies of all Acts of Parliament have been kept since 1497. Most of these are kept in the House of Lords Record Office in the Victoria Tower at Westminster and are availa
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4.1 What is delegated legislation?

In Parts A and B of this unit you have learnt about the role of Parliament in the law-making process. In addition to the power to make law itself, Parliament can delegate or pass on the power to make law to another person or body. Delegated legislation is law made by another person or body to whom Parliament has delegated or passed on the required authority. The required authority or power is usually given by Parliament in a ‘parent’ Act of Parliament known as an enabling Act
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(ii) National emergency, crisis or new development

Legislation may be passed because of some national emergency or crisis which emerges during the Government's period in office. For example, the Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 was introduced to respond to the new situation arising from the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington on 11 September 2001. The aim of the 2001 Act was to cut off terrorist funding, ensure that Government departments and agencies have the power to collect and share information required for countering
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