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6.4 Choosing to distinguish between complex situations and complex systems

Within some of the lineages of systems thinking and practice (Figure 7), the idea that system complexity is a property of what is observed about some ‘real-world’ system, is known as classical or type 1 complexity. Exploring type 1 complexity, Russell Ackoff (1981, pp.26–33) claimed for a set
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6.4 Pictures

It used to be thought that a photograph could provide proof of an event – someone could be caught red-handed by a photograph, as proof of their guilt. 'The camera never lies', it was said. If you have a digital camera and have been 'touching up' photographs on your home computer you will know that this is far from true now. It is easy to lie with a digital photograph.

The idea that the camera never lies has always been a myth, however. As far back as 1917 the photographs of the Cottin
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2.5 What is a sensible dose?

This will vary from drug to drug and patient to patient, but bear in mind that most drugs need to be swallowed or injected, so the manufacturer has designed the dose sizes to be as easy as possible for a patient to take and for the health worker to administer.

The following dose ranges are the most sensible and practical for adults:

Table 7 Typica
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01A - Introduction à la culture numérique (CN16-17) (audio)

Cours commun de culture numérique 2016-2017 - Hervé Le Crosnier

Cours commun M1-DNR2i, Licence Professionnelle ATP, M1-EMT, M1-ESPE, M2-MDS, M2-Green

Cours 1
16 septembre
- Introduction : qu’entend-on par culture numérique

Cours 2
23 septembre
- Histoire technique et sociale de l'informatique et de l'internet

Cours 3
30 septembre - Le ...
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Hounds for Heroes
June Ward talks about the charity Hounds for Heroes.
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • analyse the pros and cons of the biographical monograph in art history

  • examine the strengths and weaknesses of the biographical monograph in relation to other kinds of art history writing.


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Introduction

In this unit you will be building on your previous study and experience of ‘working with others’. Using the notion of ‘teamwork’, you will be asked to think specifically about the values and beliefs underpinning the following three aspects of practice:

  • developing working relationships with other professionals;

  • sharing information and skills with other professionals;

  • working in cooperation with other professionals.<
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3.17.1 Try some yourself

Activity 57

Evaluate each of the following and give an example from everyday life to illustrate the sum (e.g. Thomas's piggy bank).

  • (a) 4 − 2

  • (b
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Environmental Ethics
To what extent does Man have a right to exploit nature in order to live? Do animals have rights? Should we modify the genes of crops if it allows us to increase production, and even alleviate poverty? This album explores the arguments for and against genetically-modified crops, hearing the views of a dairy farmer competing in the global market, a GM scientist, an activist who believes GM crops are unsustainable, and an organic cultivator. The various views reveal how the debate is made complex b
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

5 5 Additional learning resources

Video resource

If you enjoyed the theme of the videos in this unit watch the video below to find out more about the OU course DD208 Welfare, crime and society.

Introduction

This unit describes some of the effects of drinking alcohol. It looks at alcohol's journey through the body and its effect on the liver. It also discusses some possible beneficial effects. This is an important health issue and should be of wide interest.

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course Introducing health sciences: a cas
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Personality Part II
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Masked Dancers Count Down From 10 to 1
Masked dancers count down from 10 to 1 in this classic Sesame Street snippet. (00:22)  

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3.2 Search engines and subject gateways

Although both search engines and subject gateways will help you find the resources that you need, the types of information that you find will differ.

Search engines such as Google and Yahoo! search the internet for keywords or phrases, and then show you the results. These results are not mediated by the search engines, and therefore you need to use your own judgement on the reliability of the results. You may, for example, find websites written by experts, alongside websites written by
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1 Sur la Côte d'Amour

This section on summer holidays in France starts with a video sequence showing a typical beach scene from a French resort on the Atlantic coast. As well as finding out a little about the history of holiday-making in France, we hear present-day holiday-makers describing the advantages and disadvantages of a popular beach. A number of people then explain how much holiday they take and when they can take it. Finally we explore current trends and investigate how popular foreign holidays are among
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • feel more confident about studying

  • understand any grades received and how to improve them

  • overcome problems with reading and writing

  • make the most of the opportunities a higher education course provides for developing skills


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3.5.1 Expectancy versus effect

One of the biggest problems in evaluating psychological interventions is that even if a treatment appears to ‘work’ it can still be difficult to ascertain whether the results were a consequence of the treatment itself. The improvement might have occurred anyway, with or without the treatment, or the apparent benefits might have resulted from other factors, such as being able to discuss the difficulties with a professional who understands. Any treatment can lead to expectations of i
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7 Reading an Act of the Scottish Parliament

In this section we will explore what an Act of Parliament looks like, how Acts of Parliament are structured, and how you should read an Act of Parliament.

Copies of all Acts of the Scottish Parliament are kept in the National Archives of Scotland and online at www.legislation.gov.uk. Copies of all Acts of the UK Parliament have been kept since 1497. Most of these are kept
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4.4 Structural explanations II: families

Our second example of structural explanations of criminal behaviour takes a different starting point. It looks at pathological or problem families and the transmission of criminal careers within them. This work is most closely associated with the social-psychological research of David Farrington (1994).

Farrington's argument has two core components. First, he argues that criminal offending is part of a larger syndrome of anti-social behaviour. A syndrome is a medica
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1.6 Defining global markets

Global markets for manufactured goods, as opposed to, say, primary commodities such as oil and timber, arose largely in the second half of the twentieth century as trade between countries intensified. The lowering of transport costs and the relative fall in trade barriers enabled firms in one country to compete wit
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