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2.1 The sensible body

For centuries, and well into the early modern period, sense experience, including seeing, hearing and touching, as well as bodily movement, had been explained according to the precepts of Galenic physiology – that is, as the result of the action of animal spirits flowing along the nerves between the brain and the periphery. Nerves were understood as hollow ducts that distributed animal spirits to sustain sensation and motion. In his groundbreaking model of the body as a machine, Descartes r
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1.7 Kepler and logarithms

Kepler was precisely the kind of practitioner for whom logarithms were of greatest benefit: a professional astronomer (and, of course, competent Latin scholar) driven at times to distraction – he tells us – by the magnitude and complexity of the calculations he needed to do. So when he was able to study a copy of Napier's Descriptio in about 1619 he welcomed it warmly, dedicating his next book to Napier (not realising he had been dead for two years); and he went further. Napier's b
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2.4 The intentional fallacy

In the final sentence of the Gombrich quotation in Section 2.3, he claims there is only one reason why what the artist meant could matter to us and that is the artist's meaning or intention is ‘the real, the true meaning’.

Questions about interpretation of works of art by resorting to the a
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1.1 Biography and art history

The biographical monograph, that is, a book about a single artist and his or her works, is one of the most common forms of art history writing. Biography, as a literary form, applied to art history, is underpinned by the assumption that knowing about an artist's life can help to establish both the significance and the meaning of that artist's work. This is a very common, and it seems a reasonable, assumption to make in the interpretation of pictures. It is therefore a central theme in this un
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3.1 Imagination and imagery

From the very origins of concern with the imagination in the work of the ancient Greeks, the imagination has been associated with imagery. But what is the relationship between imagination and imagery? In chapter 12 of his book, The Language of Imagination (1990), Alan White addresses this question and argues that imagination neither implies nor is implied by imagery.


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5 Conclusion

Robert Wilkinson (2005) has suggested that Romanticism in the end became ‘the dominant view of art in Europe, and we are to this day its heirs’. This is nowhere truer than in song. Even if you have never encountered German Lieder before, you may have been struck by how the emotional directness of Schubert's writing seems like something familiar from much more recent times. The attempt directly to express emotional experience in poetry and in song, often without explanation or narrative, i
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4.1 A note on the translations and scores

The German text and a parallel English translation of each of the songs we shall study in this unit will be available as attached pdf documents. The styles of translation vary, depending on the style of the original poem. For poems without a regular metre and without a rhyming-scheme, a literal translation of the German is given so that you can follow the original word by word. For poems with regular metre and a strong rhyming-scheme, the translation follows the rhythm and rhyming as closely
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3.2 Strawson: Sections III and IV

Activity

Click on 'View document' to open Peter Strawson's article 'Freedom and Resentment'.

3.1 Strawson: Sections I and II

Activity

Click on 'View document' to open Peter Strawson's article 'Freedom and Resentment'.

Introduction

This unit asks what it is to be a person. You will see that there are several philosophical questions around the nature of personhood. Here we explore what it is that defines the concept. As you work through the unit, you will notice that this area of enquiry has developed its own semi-technical vocabulary. The plural of ‘person’ is, in this area of enquiry, ‘persons’ rather than ‘people’. It is easy to see the reason for this. The question ‘What are people?’ is potentially c
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Acknowledgements

This unit was written by Dr Inga Mantle

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce
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4.3 Sentences: subject and object

A sentence consists of a number of words which, to make sense, must include a verb. Unless this is the only word in the sentence (as in ‘Run!’), there will normally be a word telling us who or what is doing the action. This doer, whether noun or pronoun, is called the subject of the verb.

Consider these sentences:

The players ran onto the pitch. The referee blew his whistle, and the centre-forward
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4.2.7 Conjunctions

Conjunctions join together individual words, phrases and clauses (the components of sentences which are longer than a simple sentence of the type: ‘Everyone can enjoy learning Latin’). So-called co-ordinating conjunctions are such words as and and but, as in the following examples:

  • fish and chips

  • Last summer they went to the Baltic and visited the city of Riga.

  • They went to the Baltic b
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4.1 Inflexion

The underlying grammatical rules of Indo-European languages (for example, English, Gaelic, French, German, Russian, Latin, Greek, Punjabi) are similar, but it is not always easy to appreciate this when you are beginning to learn a new language. A common feature of all these languages is the inflexion of nouns, adjectives and verbs, whereby the end of the word is changed according to its function in the sentence. For example, woman, woman's, women and women's are all inflexions o
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2.3.3 Landscape

You have heard this point discussed on the recording. ‘Kinloch Ainort’ is a rarity in MacLean's work – a poem ostensibly concerned with nothing but description of natural phenomena. Yet the erotic charge is unmistakeable. ‘Antlered bellowing’ is that of stags in rut. In ‘A Spring’, however, there is a conflict between love and landscape: the poet, obsessed with the image of his love in the water, is cut off from the glens and mountains which are indifferent to his obsession with
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2.3.2 Love

Please now read ‘Dogs and Wolves’.

Click to view the poem ‘Dogs and Wolves’

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2.2.1 The recordings

Click 'play' to listen to the interview with Sorley MacLean (Part 1, 7 minutes).

Download this audio clip.